Alfonso X


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Alfonso X

(Alfonso the Wise), 1221–84, Spanish king of Castile and León (1252–84); son and successor of Ferdinand III, whose conquests of the Moors he continued, notably by taking Cádiz (1262). His mother, Beatriz, was a daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia, and Alfonso's principal ambition was to become Holy Roman Emperor. In 1257 he was elected by a faction of German princes as antiking to Richard, earl of Cornwall, but because of papal opposition and Spanish antagonism, he did not go to Germany, and in 1275 he finally renounced his claim to the imperial throne. In his domestic policy, Alfonso's assertion of royal authority led to a rebellion of the nobles. His Moorish subjects also rose (1264) against him and were subdued only with the help of James I of Aragón. After the death (1275) of his eldest son, Ferdinand, while fighting the Moors, civil war for the succession broke out between Ferdinand's children and Alfonso's second son, who eventually succeeded him as Sancho IV. Sancho's partisans in the Cortes at Valladolid even declared Alfonso deposed (1282). The king died while the dynastic dispute was still unsettled. Alfonso stimulated the cultural life of his time. Under his patronage the schools of Seville, Murcia, and Salamanca were furthered, and Muslim and Jewish culture flowed into Western Europe. He was largely responsible for the Siete Partidas, a compilation of the legal knowledge of his time; for the Alfonsine tablesAlfonsine tables
or Alphonsine tables
, compilation of astronomical data tabulating the positions and movements of the planets, completed c.1252 and printed in Venice in 1483.
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 in astronomy; and for other scientific and historical works.

Bibliography

See studies by E. E. S. Procter (1951), J. E. Keller (1967), and J. Ribera y Tarragó (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
This is also observable in Alfonso X's Cantigas de Santa Maria, particularly in cantiga 209.
Can one unequivocally argue that the thirteenth-century Castilian King Alfonso X's reign is an embryonic source of the Renaissance?
Versions of their story were translated and adapted into nearly every major Western European language during the Middle Ages, including a Spanish narrative that was inserted into a copy of Alfonso X's Estoria de Espana (MS.
His background as a scholar of Alfonso X's transformation of Hispanic law and legal discourse enables him to examine another facet of chivalry's implications for the developing European urban class.
By Alfonso X's time medieval governments were developing structures of governance that sometimes succeeded.
The Cantigas de Santa Maria (hereafter CSM), (1) the great work of Marian devotion masterminded by Alfonso X of Castile, combines and coordinates three artistic enterprises--a versified miracle collection, a vast repertoire of monodic song, and a wealth of illustrative miniatures.
Flory offers an interesting analysis of the Marian miracle tales found in five collections: Gonzalo de Berceo's Milagros de Nuestra Senora, Gautier de Coinci's Miracles de Nostre Dame, Jacques de Vitry's sermonic exempla, Rutebeuf's poetic work, and King Alfonso X's Cantigas de Sancta Maria.
These aspects range from medieval French pastourelle to Milton's imitation of Mantuan, and there are discussions on medieval and Renaissance biography, Alfonso X's use of the Perseus myth, the Renaissance debate over the art of painting, and the significance of certain omissions in Biondo Flavio's Italia Illustrata.
Nor was Arabic the language of culture in Alfonso X's court.
Medical theories of amorous pathology that befoul the beloved by presenting her with abject symptoms in order to persuade the lover of the diseased nature of his loved one are closely linked to the belief, inherited by the Middle Ages, and illustrated in Cantiga 209 of Alfonso X's Cantigas de Santa Maria, in the power of words to alter the body, thus making discourse itself the cure.
To HONOR the marriage of his parents, Fernando III (1199-1252) and Beatriz of Swabia (1203-35), Alfonso X (1221-84), King of Castile-Leon, commissioned the construction of an illuminating Gothic cloister within the confines of the Our Lady of Burgos Cathedral.
Thus, in the opening essay, Peter Linehan dissects the sources used by the compilers of Alfonso X of Castile's Estoria de Espana, notably the histories of Lucas of Tuy and Rodrigo of Toledo.