Alfonso X

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Alfonso X

(Alfonso the Wise), 1221–84, Spanish king of Castile and León (1252–84); son and successor of Ferdinand III, whose conquests of the Moors he continued, notably by taking Cádiz (1262). His mother, Beatriz, was a daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia, and Alfonso's principal ambition was to become Holy Roman Emperor. In 1257 he was elected by a faction of German princes as antiking to Richard, earl of Cornwall, but because of papal opposition and Spanish antagonism, he did not go to Germany, and in 1275 he finally renounced his claim to the imperial throne. In his domestic policy, Alfonso's assertion of royal authority led to a rebellion of the nobles. His Moorish subjects also rose (1264) against him and were subdued only with the help of James I of Aragón. After the death (1275) of his eldest son, Ferdinand, while fighting the Moors, civil war for the succession broke out between Ferdinand's children and Alfonso's second son, who eventually succeeded him as Sancho IV. Sancho's partisans in the Cortes at Valladolid even declared Alfonso deposed (1282). The king died while the dynastic dispute was still unsettled. Alfonso stimulated the cultural life of his time. Under his patronage the schools of Seville, Murcia, and Salamanca were furthered, and Muslim and Jewish culture flowed into Western Europe. He was largely responsible for the Siete Partidas, a compilation of the legal knowledge of his time; for the Alfonsine tablesAlfonsine tables
or Alphonsine tables
, compilation of astronomical data tabulating the positions and movements of the planets, completed c.1252 and printed in Venice in 1483.
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 in astronomy; and for other scientific and historical works.


See studies by E. E. S. Procter (1951), J. E. Keller (1967), and J. Ribera y Tarragó (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
To HONOR the marriage of his parents, Fernando III (1199-1252) and Beatriz of Swabia (1203-35), Alfonso X (1221-84), King of Castile-Leon, commissioned the construction of an illuminating Gothic cloister within the confines of the Our Lady of Burgos Cathedral.
The rationale behind Alfonso X and Gaston VII arranging this marital contact was nearly twenty years of a cordial and mutually advantageous relationship.
In order to prevent Alfonso X from interfering any further in Gascony, the English king Henry Ill (1207-72, r.
The Cantigas de Santa Maria (hereafter CSM), (1) the great work of Marian devotion masterminded by Alfonso X of Castile, combines and coordinates three artistic enterprises--a versified miracle collection, a vast repertoire of monodic song, and a wealth of illustrative miniatures.
To begin, one must consider whether Alfonso X drew these miracles directly from the Latin text of Hugo Farsitus or received them indirectly from the works of another thirteenth-century compiler, such as Vincent of Beauvais; (28) Gautier de Coinci; or Juan Gil de Zamora.
The conventional sigla for the CSM manuscripts used here are: To = Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, MS 10069 (reproduced in Alfonso X O Sabio, Cantigas de Santa Maria, Edicion facsimile do codice de Toledo (Santiago de Compostela: Consello da Cultura Galega, 2003); E = Real Monasterio de S.
Cardenas's contribution, "Alfonso X's Appropriation of the Perseus Myth: History and Science" proposes to reveal the different ways in which the myth of Perseus was used by Alfonso X in his works.
Although they achieved mixed results, several kings of Castile, notably Alfonso X and Alfonso XI, were determined to affect this Gibraltar crusade as royal policy.
Thus, in the opening essay, Peter Linehan dissects the sources used by the compilers of Alfonso X of Castile's Estoria de Espana, notably the histories of Lucas of Tuy and Rodrigo of Toledo.
the lines of the work of compilation carried out under King Alfonso X of
fact that Alfonso X was the king under whom the first vernacular
3, 83), Alfonso X is credited with the authority to deny her the power to absolve sinners (pp.