Alfonso X

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Alfonso X

(Alfonso the Wise), 1221–84, Spanish king of Castile and León (1252–84); son and successor of Ferdinand III, whose conquests of the Moors he continued, notably by taking Cádiz (1262). His mother, Beatriz, was a daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia, and Alfonso's principal ambition was to become Holy Roman Emperor. In 1257 he was elected by a faction of German princes as antiking to Richard, earl of Cornwall, but because of papal opposition and Spanish antagonism, he did not go to Germany, and in 1275 he finally renounced his claim to the imperial throne. In his domestic policy, Alfonso's assertion of royal authority led to a rebellion of the nobles. His Moorish subjects also rose (1264) against him and were subdued only with the help of James I of Aragón. After the death (1275) of his eldest son, Ferdinand, while fighting the Moors, civil war for the succession broke out between Ferdinand's children and Alfonso's second son, who eventually succeeded him as Sancho IV. Sancho's partisans in the Cortes at Valladolid even declared Alfonso deposed (1282). The king died while the dynastic dispute was still unsettled. Alfonso stimulated the cultural life of his time. Under his patronage the schools of Seville, Murcia, and Salamanca were furthered, and Muslim and Jewish culture flowed into Western Europe. He was largely responsible for the Siete Partidas, a compilation of the legal knowledge of his time; for the Alfonsine tablesAlfonsine tables
or Alphonsine tables
, compilation of astronomical data tabulating the positions and movements of the planets, completed c.1252 and printed in Venice in 1483.
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 in astronomy; and for other scientific and historical works.


See studies by E. E. S. Procter (1951), J. E. Keller (1967), and J. Ribera y Tarragó (1970).

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References in periodicals archive ?
A sampling of the paper topics: Anglo-Saxon women's epistolary friendships, monastic friendship in theory and in action in the 12th century, spiritual friendship in the works of Alfonso X of Castile, female homosocial bonding in Chaucer's "Squire's Tale," and the spiritual friendship of Henry Suso and Elsbeth Stagel.
See his The Learned King: The Reign of Alfonso X of Castile, Philadelphia, 1991, pp.
The Cantigas de Santa Maria (hereafter CSM), (1) the great work of Marian devotion masterminded by Alfonso X of Castile, combines and coordinates three artistic enterprises--a versified miracle collection, a vast repertoire of monodic song, and a wealth of illustrative miniatures.
The organization of these movements, their rights of way and grazing rights, the maintenance of their routes, and regulation of the wool trade were all placed under the authority of the Honrado Concejo de la Mesta (the Honorable Council of the Mesta) by Alfonso X of Castile and Leon in 1273.
Thus, in the opening essay, Peter Linehan dissects the sources used by the compilers of Alfonso X of Castile's Estoria de Espana, notably the histories of Lucas of Tuy and Rodrigo of Toledo.
O'Callaghan, The Learned King: The Reign of Alfonso X of Castile (Philadelphia, 1993), 163-80; Robert S.
Now a new set was prepared under the sponsorship of Alfonso X of Castile, who reigned from 1252 to 1284.
Contributors from mostly American universities explore such examples as Venantius Fortunatus as a case of patronage and erotic rhetoric in the sixth century, fusion and fission in the love and lexis of early Ireland, the Lais of Marie de France, the Cantigas de Santa Maria of Alfonso X of Castile, and courtly and martial words of love in the Franklin's Tale and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.
In the reign of Alfonso X of Castile, from 1252 to 1284, Jewish scholars in Toledo translated Arabic scientific works and composed many more original treatises in Spanish, many of which were incorporated into a body of writing that became the first such collection in the vernacular and served for some time as Europe's chief source of astronomical and scientific information.