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Alfonso XIII,1886–1941, king of Spain (1886–1931), posthumous son and successor of Alfonso XII. His mother, Maria ChristinaMaria Christina
, 1858–1929, queen of Spain, consort of Alfonso XII. An Austrian archduchess, she was married to Alfonso in 1879. After his death, she was regent (1886–1902) for his posthumous son, Alfonso XIII, but took very little part in political affairs.
..... Click the link for more information. (1858–1929), was regent until 1902. In 1906, Alfonso married Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg, granddaughter of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. An attempt was made to kill the couple on their wedding day, the first of several assassination attempts. Although Alfonso enjoyed some personal popularity, the monarchy was threatened by social unrest in the newly industrialized areas, by Catalan agitation for autonomy, by dissatisfaction with the constant fighting in Morocco, and by the rise of socialism and anarchism. In 1909 the government was widely attacked for the execution of the radical publicist Francisco Ferrer GuardiaFerrer Guardia, Francisco
, 1859–1909, Spanish political theorist and educator. An ardent liberal, anticlerical, and republican, he took refuge in France (1886), where he was further influenced by radical thought.
..... Click the link for more information. , following an uprising in Barcelona. After keeping Spain out of World War I, Alfonso, dissatisfied with the functioning of parliamentary government, supported Gen. Miguel Primo de RiveraPrimo de Rivera, Miguel,
1870–1930, Spanish general and dictator. After a rapid and brilliant military career in Cuba, the Philippines, and Morocco, he became governor of Cádiz (1915), then in turn captain general of Valencia, Madrid, and Catalonia.
..... Click the link for more information. in establishing (1923) a military dictatorship. At the fall (1930) of Primo de Rivera, discontent was running high. After the municipal elections of 1931 showed an overwhelming republican majority, Alfonso "suspended the exercise of royal power" and went into exile (Apr. 14, 1931). A few weeks before his death in Rome he renounced his claim to the throne in favor of his third son, Juan (see BourbonBourbon
, European royal family, originally of France; a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty (see Capetians). One branch of the Bourbons occupies the modern Spanish throne, and other branches ruled the Two Sicilies and Parma.
..... Click the link for more information. , family).
Born May 17, 1886; died Feb. 28, 1941. King of Spain in 1902–31.
Alfonso furthered the establishment of the dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera, which took place on Sept. 13, 1923, and depended on him for support until 1930. As a result of the revolution that began in 1931, he was deposed and exiled from Spain. After his exile he lived in France and later in Italy.