Alfonso XIII

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Alfonso XIII,

1886–1941, king of Spain (1886–1931), posthumous son and successor of Alfonso XII. His mother, Maria ChristinaMaria Christina
, 1858–1929, queen of Spain, consort of Alfonso XII. An Austrian archduchess, she was married to Alfonso in 1879. After his death, she was regent (1886–1902) for his posthumous son, Alfonso XIII, but took very little part in political affairs.
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 (1858–1929), was regent until 1902. In 1906, Alfonso married Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg, granddaughter of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. An attempt was made to kill the couple on their wedding day, the first of several assassination attempts. Although Alfonso enjoyed some personal popularity, the monarchy was threatened by social unrest in the newly industrialized areas, by Catalan agitation for autonomy, by dissatisfaction with the constant fighting in Morocco, and by the rise of socialism and anarchism. In 1909 the government was widely attacked for the execution of the radical publicist Francisco Ferrer GuardiaFerrer Guardia, Francisco
, 1859–1909, Spanish political theorist and educator. An ardent liberal, anticlerical, and republican, he took refuge in France (1886), where he was further influenced by radical thought.
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, following an uprising in Barcelona. After keeping Spain out of World War I, Alfonso, dissatisfied with the functioning of parliamentary government, supported Gen. Miguel Primo de RiveraPrimo de Rivera, Miguel,
1870–1930, Spanish general and dictator. After a rapid and brilliant military career in Cuba, the Philippines, and Morocco, he became governor of Cádiz (1915), then in turn captain general of Valencia, Madrid, and Catalonia.
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 in establishing (1923) a military dictatorship. At the fall (1930) of Primo de Rivera, discontent was running high. After the municipal elections of 1931 showed an overwhelming republican majority, Alfonso "suspended the exercise of royal power" and went into exile (Apr. 14, 1931). A few weeks before his death in Rome he renounced his claim to the throne in favor of his third son, Juan (see BourbonBourbon
, European royal family, originally of France; a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty (see Capetians). One branch of the Bourbons occupies the modern Spanish throne, and other branches ruled the Two Sicilies and Parma.
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, family).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Alfonso XIII


Born May 17, 1886; died Feb. 28, 1941. King of Spain in 1902–31.

Alfonso furthered the establishment of the dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera, which took place on Sept. 13, 1923, and depended on him for support until 1930. As a result of the revolution that began in 1931, he was deposed and exiled from Spain. After his exile he lived in France and later in Italy.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Alfonso XIII

1886--1941, king of Spain (1886--1931), who was forced to abdicate on the establishment of the republic in 1931
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
From its earliest days, the King David Hotel hosted royalty: the dowager empress of Persia, queen mother Nazli of Egypt and King Abdullah I of Jordan stayed at the hotel, and three heads of state forced to flee their countries took up residence there: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, forced to abdicate in 1931, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, driven out by the Italians in 1936, and King George II of Greece who set up his government in exile at the hotel after the Nazi occupation of his country in 1942.
King Alfonso XIII of Spain, who married Queen Victoria's granddaughter Victoria Eugenie, spent his summers here entertaining heads of state including our own King George V.
She focuses on five granddaughters of Queen Victoria, all distinguished by the fact that they went on to become reigning consorts: Alexandra, tsarina of Russia; Marie, queen consort of King Ferdinand of Romania; Maud, queen consort of King Haakon VII of Norway; Sophie, queen consort of Constantine I of the Hellenes; and Victoria Eugenie, queen consort of King Alfonso XIII of Spain.
She later married King Alfonso XIII of Spain and was the grandmother of King Juan Carlos.
The chair's original function was as a modern throne for the visiting King Alfonso XIII of Spain and it was designed to provide a seat in the reception area for the Monarch and his Queen as they signed the Golden Book to officially open the exposition.
One of Queen Victoria's granddaughters married Alfonso XIII of Spain.