Alfonso V(redirected from Alfonso the Magnanimous)
Alfonso V, king of Aragón and Sicily
Alfonso V (Alfonso the Magnanimous), 1396–1458, king of Aragón and Sicily (1416–58) and of Naples (1443–58), count of Barcelona. He was the son of Ferdinand I, whom he succeeded in Aragón and Sicily. Queen Joanna II of Naples sought his aid against Louis III, rival king of Naples, and, after Alfonso had defeated (1421) Louis, Joanna adopted Alfonso as her heir. They quarreled in 1423, and when Joanna died (1435), she left her throne to René of Anjou. Attempting to conquer Naples, Alfonso was captured (1435) by the Genoese, but he was released through the agency of the duke of Milan. In 1442 he defeated René, took Naples, and was recognized (1443) as king by the Pope. Leaving his Spanish possessions under the rule of his wife and his brother, Alfonso spent the rest of his life in Naples, where he accorded great privileges to Spanish nobles and tried to introduce Spanish institutions. A patron of arts and letters, he held a splendid court and beautified the city. Alfonso also played a vigorous part in Italian politics. He left Naples to his Son Ferdinand I and the rest of his kingdom to his brother John II.
Alfonso V, king of Portugal
Alfonso V, 1432–81, king of Portugal (1438–81), son of Duarte and Queen Leonor. During his minority there was a struggle for the regency between the queen mother and Alfonso's uncle, Dom Pedro, duke of Coimbra. The duke was triumphant (1440) and retained power after Alfonso was declared of age (1446) until the young king fell under the influence of Dom Pedro's illegitimate half-brother, Alfonso, duke of Braganza. The dismissal (1448) of Dom Pedro led to a civil war, in which the king's troops killed (1449) his uncle at Alfarrobeira. Alfonso undertook ventures in Morocco and by capturing Alcácer-Seguer (1458) and Tangier (1471) won the name Alfonso the African. Less rewarding was his long attempt to win the throne of Castile after his marriage—never sanctioned by the church—in 1475 to Juana la Beltraneja, officially the daughter and heiress of Henry IV of Castile, although generally thought to be the child of Beltrán de la Cueva. This claim brought Alfonso into war with Isabella I of Castile and her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragón. Alfonso, badly beaten in the battle of Toro (1476), capitulated in 1479. During his reign Prince Henry the Navigator was active. Alfonso was succeeded by his son, John II, who was the effective ruler of Portugal after 1476.
Alfonso V, Spanish king of León
Alfonso V (Alfonso the Noble), 994?–1027, Spanish king of León (999–1027). While he was still a minor, the Moorish ruler al-Mansur died, and the Spanish court recovered the city of León. Alfonso gave (1020) León its fuero [charter]. He was killed in the siege of Viseu.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.