In general English usage, the word perspective is used to signify a particular point of view as in, "From an historical perspective ...," or as, "putting things in their proper perspective." Art Historians may speak of the "atmospheric perceptive" used by Leonardo DaVinci in which cooler colors are used to portray objects at a great distance, or "hieratic perspective" used in both Medieval and Oriental art where the more important personages are rendered larger than the rest, but Belting refers exclusively to the "mathematical perspective," described in Alhazen
's original work on optics as titled in the Medieval Latin translation Perspectiva.
The "Kitab" contained Alhazen
's problem -- "to determine the point of reflection from a plane or curved surface, given the centre of the eye and the observed point -- which is stated and solved by means of conic sections".
The Western reception of the Book of Optics, initially known in Europe by the Latin title Perspectiva, catalyzed the emergence of a pictorial theory that, as Belting puts it, "made the human gaze the pivotal point of all perception and enabled artists to reproduce this gaze in paintings." Belting attributes this watershed misreading to a transformation that occurred when Alhazen
was translated--changes in vocabulary suggested to readers of Latin that the theory of vision must also entail a study of pictures.
of Lincoln, the UK) on the landmark works on optics of Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen
), with specific discussion of the mathematics and science, as well as the influence of his works on both Arab and European scholars.
(Ibn Al-Haytham), the Arab polymath who invented the camera obscura during the 10th century.
Author Brian Clegg moves us through the first halting experiments with light by the Islamic philosopher, Alhazen
, through the work of Roger Bacon (also know as Doctor Mirabilis).
In 1021, an Arab scientist, Alhazen
, completed the book The Book of Optics that discusses the foundation of light physics.
Further major papers on lunar matters also appeared in the Journals for 2010 April (Richard Baum on Harold Hill's South Polar work) and 2010 June (Nigel Longshaw on Schroter and Alhazen
and was invented by Abu Ali Ibn Al-Haithan (965-1040 AD), better known to us in the west as Alhazen
. Ibn Al-Haithan is considered the 'father' of modern optics for his comprehensive works on optics, physics and development of the scientific method among other things.
Persian physicist from the 11th century Alhazen
argued that light has finite speed that varies in different transparent media.
Segundo Sabra (1978), a questao, inicialmente abordada pelo filosofo grego Aristoteles (384-322 a.C.), passando pelo pouco conhecido filosofo arabe da Idade Media, Ibn Al-Haytham (965 a.C.-1040 d.C.), tambem conhecido como Alhazen
, em seguida pelo celebre fisico e fisiologista ingles Isaac Newton (1642-1727), culminando nas abordagens experimentais dos fisicos e fisiologistas alemaes Hermann von Helmholtz (1866/1962), Ewald Hering (1874/1964) e David Katz (1935), permanece ainda hoje sem explicacao.