Ali

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Ali

(älē`) (Ali ibn Abu Talib), 598?–661, 4th caliph (656–61). The debate over his right to the caliphatecaliphate
, the rulership of Islam; caliph , the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place.
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 caused a major split in Islam into SunniSunni
[Arab. Sunna,=tradition], from ahl al-sunnah wa-l-jamaa [Arab.,=the people of the custom of the Prophet and community], the largest division of Islam. Sunni Islam is the heir to the early central Islamic state, in its ackowledgement of the legitimacy of the order of
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 and ShiiteShiites
[Arab., shiat Ali,=the party of Ali], the second largest branch of Islam, Shiites currently account for 10%–15% of all Muslims. Shiite Islam originated as a political movement supporting Ali (cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam) as the
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 branches, and he is regarded by the Shiites as the first Imam, or leader: Shiite derives from the phrase shi-at Ali [Ar.,=the party of Ali]. He was the son of Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle, but was more closely related to the Prophet as the husband of FatimaFatima
, 616?–633?, daughter of Muhammad by his first wife, Khadija. Fatima was the wife of Ali, the mother of Hasan and Husein, and reputedly the ancestress of the Fatimids. She is revered by all branches of the Islamic faith and is the subject of many mysteries and legends.
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. He was one of the Prophet's first and most faithful followers. There are conflicting traditions on whether Muhammad intended Ali to be his immediate sucessor. In 656 he became the 4th caliph on UthmanUthman
or Othman
, c.574–656, 3d caliph (644–56), also known as Uthman ibn al-Affan; son-in-law of Muhammad. He belonged to the great Umayyad family and was selected as caliph after the murder of Umar.
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's death. He was strongly opposed by AishahAishah
, c.614–678, third and favorite of the nine wives of Muhammad the Prophet. Her father was Abu Bakr, who became first caliph after the Prophet's death. She was married to the Prophet soon after the Hegira, his only wife that was neither a widow nor a divorcee.
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, the Prophet's wife; MuawiyaMuawiya
, d. 680, 1st Umayyad caliph (661–80), one of the greatest Muslim statesmen; son of Abu Sufyan, a Koreish tribesman of Mecca. He submitted to Islam the year of the surrender of Mecca and became Muhammad's secretary.
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, who later founded the Umayyad dynasty; and dissatisfied ex-supporters, the Khawarijis. The Khawarijis succeeded in assassinating him in 661. His eldest son HasanHasan
, c.625–c.669; son of Ali and Fatima (daughter of Muhammad the Prophet). When Ali was killed in 661, Hasan became caliph, but he was not strong enough to withstand the threat of arms of the Umayyads and under pressure abdicated in favor of Muawiya.
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 (624–70) abdicated in favor of Muawiya. Ali and his second son HuseinHusein
or Husayn
, c.626–680, Muslim leader, second son of Ali and Fatima (daughter of Muhammad). With the assassination of his father in 661 and the acquiescence of his brother Hasan, the caliphate passed out of the Alid family, although many continued to
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 (626–80) are the great martyrs of the Shiites.

Ali

1. ?600--661 ad, fourth caliph of Islam (656--61 ad), considered the first caliph by the Shiites: cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed
2. Mehemet. See Mehemet Ali
3. Muhammad. See Muhammad Ali
References in periodicals archive ?
Cardinal Emmanuel had arrived in Najaf early in the day, where he visited the shrine of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib and the museum of Sayid Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr.
far from the shrine of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib. The blasts killed four people and wounded 14 others, among them a number of
already formed a densely crowded half-arch around the entrance to the Ibtidaiyya Ali bin Abi Talib polling station.
Muawiya Hassanein, Director of Emergency and Ambulance in the Ministry of Health, reported that the numbers of dead and injured are expected to increase.The Israeli aircraft launched several strikes since the early hours of the morning targeting mosques including in Bureij Refugee Camp in the central Gaza Strip, Gaza City's Omar Bin Al Khattab Mosque, and the Masjid Ali Bin Abi Talib in the eastern Gaza City neighborhood of Zeitoun.Another Gazan was killed and seriously injured when Israeli aircraft targeted a police station in Al Qarrara Village, just north of Khan Younis.
Imam Husayn ibn Ali bin Abi Talib: martyred in the Kerbala Massacre of 680 A.D.
And will also visit the shrine of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib as well as the visit to the Kufa Mosque .And will head to the province of Karbala to perform the ceremony of the visit of Imam Hussein bin Ali and his brother Abbas ./ End
The opening is part of a series of upcoming inaugurations in the coming days, which include the launching of Ali bin Abi Talib Street, the TV and Sports Intersections as well as the two tunnels beneath the Pearl Interchange.
Tribune News Network Doha THE Public Works Authority (Ashghal) will implement a two-day closure on one direction of Ali Bin Abi Talib Street in the direction from D-Ring Road to C-Ring Road, while keeping the opposite side of the road open to traffic.
On May 22, a 20-year-old terrorist blew himself up at the Imam Ali bin Abi Talib Mosque in Al-Qadeeh, Qatif, during Friday prayers, killing 21 people and wounding more than 100.
Riyadh, Sha'ban 30, 1436, Jun 17, 2015, SPA -- Islamic scholars and associations of India continued their denunciation and condemnation of terrorist criminal attacks which have recently targeted a mosque of Ali bin Abi Talib at Al-Qudayh town of Qatif and the vicinity of Al-Anoud mosque in Dammam, stressing their standing by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia against such terrorist acts decisively.
If it were the US's intention to invade Iraq and rid it of Saddam in the first place, why did its army retreat after reaching the Ali Bin Abi Talib base in Nassiriyah, a stone's throw away from Baghdad?
SHARJAH Musallas:Al Badia, Sharjah prayer ground, Al Falaj ground in Al Abar area and Al Zubair prayer grounds in Al Zubair area, Al Khan Musalla, Al Hamriya Musalla, Abu Mousa Musalla, Mosques:King Faisal Mosque in Al Sour area, Umm Qura center in Al Ghuilleilah, Al Maghifirah Mosque, Al Majjarah bin Darwish Mosque and Abu Dhari al Ghafaru Mosque in Al Majjarah area, Jamia Masjid in Al Maraija, Ali bin Abi Talib Mosque, Bin Kamil Mosque and Abu Hanifa Mosque in Al Shuwayehan area.