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anchovy,small fish of the family Engraulidae, found mainly in the temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans and the Mediterranean and Black seas. The commercially significant anchovy species belong to the genus Engraulis, which includes the European and Californian anchovy and the Peruvian anchoveta. Commercial anchovies, which are caught for food, fishmeal, and fish oil, are typically 5–6 in. (13–15 cm) long when caught, but the California anchovy can reach nearly 10 in. (25 cm) in length. Anchovies harvested for the Italian and Spanish markets are usually cured by a process involving fermentation, but they may also be pickled in vinegar. Anchovies also are significant as food for larger predatory fish. Anchovy species fluctuate in response to natural conditions, e.g., the anchovies off Peru are adversely affected by El NiñoEl Niño–Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) , large-scale climatic fluctuation of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the overlying atmosphere. The El Niño [Span.
..... Click the link for more information. . Anchovies are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
..... Click the link for more information. , subphylum Vertebrata, class Actinopterygii, order Clupeiformes, family Engraulidae.
Any member of the Engraulidae, a family of herringlike fishes harvested commercially for human consumption.
any of various small marine food fishes of the genus Engraulis and related genera, esp E. encrasicolus of S Europe: family Clupeidae (herrings). They have a salty taste and are often tinned or made into a paste or essence