Muhammad Iqbal

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Iqbal, Muhammad

(məhăm`ĭd ĭkhbäl`), 1877–1938, Indian Muslim poet, philosopher, and political leader. He studied at Government College, Lahore, Cambridge, and the Univ. of Munich, and then he taught philosophy at Government College and practiced law. He was elected (1927) to the Punjab provincial legislature and served (1930) as president of the Muslim LeagueMuslim League,
political organization of India and Pakistan, founded 1906 as the All-India Muslim League by Aga Khan III. Its original purpose was to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in India.
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. An advocate initially of a pan-Islamic movement that would transcend national boundaries, he became a supporter of an independent homeland for India's Muslims and aligned himself with Muhammad Ali JinnahJinnah, Muhammad Ali
, 1876–1948, founder of Pakistan, b. Karachi. After his admission to the bar in England, he returned to India to practice law. Early in his career he was a fervent supporter of the Indian National Congress and an advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity.
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. He is regarded by many as the spiritual founder of Pakistan, and the anniversary of his death (Apr. 21) is a national holiday. Iqbal was the foremost Muslim thinker of his period, and in his many volumes of poetry (written in Urdu and Persian) and essays, he urged a regeneration of Islam through the love of God and the active development of the self. He was a firm believer in freedom and the creative force that freedom can exert on men. He was knighted in 1922. His works include The Secrets of the Self (1915, tr. 1940), and Javid-nama (1934, tr. 1966).

Bibliography

See biographical studies by A. A. Beg (1961), A. Schimmel (1963), H. Malik, ed. (1971), and S. M. Burney (1987).

Iqbal, Muhammad

 

Born Feb. 22,1873 or 1877, in Sial-kot, Punjab; died Apr. 21, 1938, in Lahore. Hindustani poet, philosopher, and public figure.

Iqbal studied in Lahore and then in Britain and Germany. He began publishing his works in the late 1890’s. He addressed himself to the Muslims not only of India but of the entire East—for instance, his narrative poems in Persian The Secrets of the Self (1915), The Mysteries of Selflessness (1918), The Message of the East (1923), and The Book ofJavid (1932). In addition to a collection of early verses in Urdu, The Caravan Bell (1924), Iqbal published the collections Gabriel’s Wing (1935), The Staff of Moses (1936), and The Gifts of Gedzhaz (1938), in which he celebrated man’s creative activity and called for a restructuring of life. Iqbal’s creative work is permeated with humanism and patriotism. Nevertheless, his philosophical and sociopolitical opinions are marked by a certain contradictory quality. While criticizing the capitalistic system, Iqbal at the same time defended private property and individualism.

Iqbal welcomed the October Revolution and had a sympathetic attitude toward the ideas of socialism (his narrative poem Lenin), but he was opposed to “communistic atheism.” In 1930, Iqbal declared himself in favor of the future creation of a Muslim state in northwest India to be included within an independent Indian federation. This declaration led the advocates of the formation of Pakistan to consider Iqbal an originator of their movement.

WORKS

Zvon karavannogo kolokol’chika. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from Urdu and Persian.)

REFERENCES

Anikeev, N. P. Vydaiushchiisia myslitel’i poet Mukhammad Ikbal. Moscow, 1959.
Gordon-Polonskaia, L. R. Musul’manskie techeniiav obshchestvennoi mysli Indii i Pakistana. Moscow, 1963. Chapter 7.
Prigarina, N. I. Poeziia Mukhammada Ikbala (1900–1924gg.).Moscow, 1972.
Ghani, A., and K. Ilahi. A Bibliography of Iqbal. Lahore, 1959.

G. A. ZOGRAF and L. I. IUREVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
FAISALABAD -- Din Group of Industries was ready to invest 70 million dollars in Allama Iqbal Industrial City established by Faisalabad Industrial Estate Development and Management Company (FIEDMC) near M-3 Motorway.
He said that Din Group had expressed its willingness to invest 70 million dollars in Allama Iqbal Industrial City project in which a Special Economic Zone and industrialists and investors were giving priority to it for investment.
Faisalabad -- Din Group of Indusy, a leading group in textile sector, committed to investing $70 million in Allama Iqbal Industrial City as an agreement has been signed with Faisalabad Industrial Estate Development and Management Company (FIEDMC) in this regard.
HYDERABAD -- The 81st death anniversary of Allama Iqbal was observed on 21st April across the country.
NPT Vice Chairman Prof Dr Rafique Ahmed presided over the event, while NPT Vice Chairman Mian Farooq Altaf, Senator Waleed Iqbal, Sahibzada Sultan Ahmed Ali, Dr Tahir Raza Bokhari, Qayyum Nizami, Prof Humayun Ehsaan, Begum Mehnaz Rafi, Nazria Pakistan Forum (NPF-AJK) President Maulana Mohammad Shafi Josh, NPT-Peshawar President Malik Liaqat Ali Tabassum and a number of other intellectual and literary personalities spoke about Allama Iqbal's philosophy and poetry, besides highlighting various facets of his life.
In his message on the occasion of the 81st death anniversary of National Poet, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, he said prior to the passage of Pakistan resolution, Allama Iqbal's philosophical and poetic writings were instrumental in formation and molding of public opinion.
The Speaker said prior the passage of Pakistan resolution Allama Iqbal's philosophical and poetic writings were instrumental in formation and moulding of public opinion.
He said the nation had been needed of a leader like Imran Khan who was brave enough to deal with crises, adding that there was great impact of Allama Iqbal on the thoughts of the prime minister.
Kashmiri expatriates-owned private entrepreneur and Mirpur Development Authority [MDA] signed a memorandum of understanding [MOU] for the construction of three crossing bridges for pedestrians at the busiest central Allama Iqbal Road - besides installation of traffic signals at major streets of this ancestral city of over a million of UK-based Kashmiri expatriates.
PESHAWAR -- Speakers at a function here on Thursday called upon the young generation to explore and understand the poetic thoughts of national poet Allama Iqbal to scale the heights of success in life.
He said that Allama Iqbal was the great proponent of unity of Muslim Ummah and reliance on their resources and strength.
JEDDAH: The Pakistan Repatriation Council (PRC) marked the 131st birth anniversary of Allama Iqbal, Pakistan's thinker, philosopher and poet, at the Mehran restaurant here.