Muhammad Iqbal

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Iqbal, Muhammad

(məhăm`ĭd ĭkhbäl`), 1877–1938, Indian Muslim poet, philosopher, and political leader. He studied at Government College, Lahore, Cambridge, and the Univ. of Munich, and then he taught philosophy at Government College and practiced law. He was elected (1927) to the Punjab provincial legislature and served (1930) as president of the Muslim LeagueMuslim League,
political organization of India and Pakistan, founded 1906 as the All-India Muslim League by Aga Khan III. Its original purpose was to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in India.
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. An advocate initially of a pan-Islamic movement that would transcend national boundaries, he became a supporter of an independent homeland for India's Muslims and aligned himself with Muhammad Ali JinnahJinnah, Muhammad Ali
, 1876–1948, founder of Pakistan, b. Karachi. After his admission to the bar in England, he returned to India to practice law. Early in his career he was a fervent supporter of the Indian National Congress and an advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity.
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. He is regarded by many as the spiritual founder of Pakistan, and the anniversary of his death (Apr. 21) is a national holiday. Iqbal was the foremost Muslim thinker of his period, and in his many volumes of poetry (written in Urdu and Persian) and essays, he urged a regeneration of Islam through the love of God and the active development of the self. He was a firm believer in freedom and the creative force that freedom can exert on men. He was knighted in 1922. His works include The Secrets of the Self (1915, tr. 1940), and Javid-nama (1934, tr. 1966).


See biographical studies by A. A. Beg (1961), A. Schimmel (1963), H. Malik, ed. (1971), and S. M. Burney (1987).

Iqbal, Muhammad


Born Feb. 22,1873 or 1877, in Sial-kot, Punjab; died Apr. 21, 1938, in Lahore. Hindustani poet, philosopher, and public figure.

Iqbal studied in Lahore and then in Britain and Germany. He began publishing his works in the late 1890’s. He addressed himself to the Muslims not only of India but of the entire East—for instance, his narrative poems in Persian The Secrets of the Self (1915), The Mysteries of Selflessness (1918), The Message of the East (1923), and The Book ofJavid (1932). In addition to a collection of early verses in Urdu, The Caravan Bell (1924), Iqbal published the collections Gabriel’s Wing (1935), The Staff of Moses (1936), and The Gifts of Gedzhaz (1938), in which he celebrated man’s creative activity and called for a restructuring of life. Iqbal’s creative work is permeated with humanism and patriotism. Nevertheless, his philosophical and sociopolitical opinions are marked by a certain contradictory quality. While criticizing the capitalistic system, Iqbal at the same time defended private property and individualism.

Iqbal welcomed the October Revolution and had a sympathetic attitude toward the ideas of socialism (his narrative poem Lenin), but he was opposed to “communistic atheism.” In 1930, Iqbal declared himself in favor of the future creation of a Muslim state in northwest India to be included within an independent Indian federation. This declaration led the advocates of the formation of Pakistan to consider Iqbal an originator of their movement.


Zvon karavannogo kolokol’chika. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from Urdu and Persian.)


Anikeev, N. P. Vydaiushchiisia myslitel’i poet Mukhammad Ikbal. Moscow, 1959.
Gordon-Polonskaia, L. R. Musul’manskie techeniiav obshchestvennoi mysli Indii i Pakistana. Moscow, 1963. Chapter 7.
Prigarina, N. I. Poeziia Mukhammada Ikbala (1900–1924gg.).Moscow, 1972.
Ghani, A., and K. Ilahi. A Bibliography of Iqbal. Lahore, 1959.


References in periodicals archive ?
I S L A M A B A D -- Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) will hold an international conference on Pakistani languages here on Friday to promote the same as a source of national integrity and cohesion.
The minister said that Punjab Chief Minister Shehbaz Sharif would lay the foundation stone of Allama Iqbal Flyover during his visit to the city on March 15, adding that the CM would also inaugurate the newly constructed Shehbaz Sharif Flyover the same day.
He paid homage to Allama Iqbal and showed keen interest in Iqbal's personal daily-use items, his rare pictures and his family and rare letters displayed at the Iqbal Manzil.
SIALKOT -- Ambassador of Germany in Pakistan Martin Kobler on Tuesday visited iqbal Manzil, the birthplace of Allama iqbal , and paid rich tributes to the Poet of East.
MIRPURKHAS -- Deputy Commissioner Mirpurkhas Zahid Hussain Memon while addressing the science fair at the Allama Iqbal High School Mirpurkhas on Saturday said that providing quality education to the children is the need of the hour.
The event was organised by Jinnah-Allama Iqbal Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology (JAIDE) in collaboration with Novo Nordisk, here at Allama Iqbal Medical College.
The Speaker said that the dream of Allama Iqbal was a great blessing for the Muslims of the sub-continent, and added that his poetic message roused and strengthened the spirit and will of the Muslims to get independent and separate homeland for them where they could live according to their religious, culture and traditions.
LAHORE -- Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) personnel at the Allama Iqbal International Airport in Lahore foiled an attempt to smuggle 70 capsule of heroin to Istanbul on Thursday.
RIYADH: The poet of the east Allama Iqbal through his poetry emphasized pure spiritualism to counter the German concept of materialism, said Pakistani Ambassador Manzoor ul Haq.
Allama Iqbal used both poetry and prose in Persian, Urdu and English to convey his multi-dimensional feelings and thoughts.
SIALKOT -- A road in Munich-Germany has been named after Allama iqbal , the Poet Philosopher of the East, by the German government.
BAHAWALPUR -- Assistant Regional Director, Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) for Rahimyar Khan, Adnan Akhtar has been given promotion to the next grade and post of Regional Director with immediate effect.