Muhammad Iqbal

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Iqbal, Muhammad

(məhăm`ĭd ĭkhbäl`), 1877–1938, Indian Muslim poet, philosopher, and political leader. He studied at Government College, Lahore, Cambridge, and the Univ. of Munich, and then he taught philosophy at Government College and practiced law. He was elected (1927) to the Punjab provincial legislature and served (1930) as president of the Muslim LeagueMuslim League,
political organization of India and Pakistan, founded 1906 as the All-India Muslim League by Aga Khan III. Its original purpose was to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in India.
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. An advocate initially of a pan-Islamic movement that would transcend national boundaries, he became a supporter of an independent homeland for India's Muslims and aligned himself with Muhammad Ali JinnahJinnah, Muhammad Ali
, 1876–1948, founder of Pakistan, b. Karachi. After his admission to the bar in England, he returned to India to practice law. Early in his career he was a fervent supporter of the Indian National Congress and an advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity.
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. He is regarded by many as the spiritual founder of Pakistan, and the anniversary of his death (Apr. 21) is a national holiday. Iqbal was the foremost Muslim thinker of his period, and in his many volumes of poetry (written in Urdu and Persian) and essays, he urged a regeneration of Islam through the love of God and the active development of the self. He was a firm believer in freedom and the creative force that freedom can exert on men. He was knighted in 1922. His works include The Secrets of the Self (1915, tr. 1940), and Javid-nama (1934, tr. 1966).


See biographical studies by A. A. Beg (1961), A. Schimmel (1963), H. Malik, ed. (1971), and S. M. Burney (1987).

Iqbal, Muhammad


Born Feb. 22,1873 or 1877, in Sial-kot, Punjab; died Apr. 21, 1938, in Lahore. Hindustani poet, philosopher, and public figure.

Iqbal studied in Lahore and then in Britain and Germany. He began publishing his works in the late 1890’s. He addressed himself to the Muslims not only of India but of the entire East—for instance, his narrative poems in Persian The Secrets of the Self (1915), The Mysteries of Selflessness (1918), The Message of the East (1923), and The Book ofJavid (1932). In addition to a collection of early verses in Urdu, The Caravan Bell (1924), Iqbal published the collections Gabriel’s Wing (1935), The Staff of Moses (1936), and The Gifts of Gedzhaz (1938), in which he celebrated man’s creative activity and called for a restructuring of life. Iqbal’s creative work is permeated with humanism and patriotism. Nevertheless, his philosophical and sociopolitical opinions are marked by a certain contradictory quality. While criticizing the capitalistic system, Iqbal at the same time defended private property and individualism.

Iqbal welcomed the October Revolution and had a sympathetic attitude toward the ideas of socialism (his narrative poem Lenin), but he was opposed to “communistic atheism.” In 1930, Iqbal declared himself in favor of the future creation of a Muslim state in northwest India to be included within an independent Indian federation. This declaration led the advocates of the formation of Pakistan to consider Iqbal an originator of their movement.


Zvon karavannogo kolokol’chika. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from Urdu and Persian.)


Anikeev, N. P. Vydaiushchiisia myslitel’i poet Mukhammad Ikbal. Moscow, 1959.
Gordon-Polonskaia, L. R. Musul’manskie techeniiav obshchestvennoi mysli Indii i Pakistana. Moscow, 1963. Chapter 7.
Prigarina, N. I. Poeziia Mukhammada Ikbala (1900–1924gg.).Moscow, 1972.
Ghani, A., and K. Ilahi. A Bibliography of Iqbal. Lahore, 1959.


References in periodicals archive ?
The events were themed on the contributions of two modern greats of the Islamic world, the founder of the UAE, Shaikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan, and the great 20th century poet-philosopher of the subcontinent, Dr Allama Mohammad Iqbal.
He stressed upon students to follow teachings of Qauid-e-Azam and Allama Mohammad Iqbal.
JEDDAH: Pakistan Repatriation Council (PRC) recalled the services of Pakistan's thinker, poet and philosopher Allama Mohammad Iqbal on the occasion of his 139th birth anniversary.
Heidelberg -- Pakistans Ambassador to Germany Syed Hasan Javed has said that all out efforts will be made to set up an Iqbal Museum at the House in Heidelberg, where Allama Mohammad Iqbal stayed for his PhD studies in Germany.
LYING down in his bedroom in Javed Manzil, Allama Mohammad Iqbal receives important visitors including Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Lord Lothian, Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jawaharlal Nehru.
Sani will pay tribute to legendary poets such as Faiz Ahmed Faiz and Allama Mohammad Iqbal amongst others.
Allama Mohammad Iqbal is in the Persian language and "we cannot understand him properly without learning Persian".
Islamabad -- The 138th birth anniversary of poet philosopher Dr Allama Mohammad Iqbal was celebrated across the country on Monday.
Addressing on the occaison, Punjab Teachers Union President, Sajjad Akram Kazmi paid a rich tribute to great poet of the east Allama Mohammad Iqbal for his meritorious services for Pakistan.
The event also focused on the role of legendary Pakistan poet Allama Mohammad Iqbal in creating a strong sense of national identity.
LAHORE -- The 137th birthday anniversary of the Poet of the East, Doctor Allama Mohammad Iqbal was observed on Sunday in Lahore with the great zeal and fervor as observed in other parts of the country.
The programme commenced with a scintillating performance by students of the KG Wing, who presented a tableau Ya Rab Dil-e- Muslim Ko Vo Zinda Tamanna De' penned by Dr Allama Mohammad Iqbal.