Muhammad Iqbal

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Iqbal, Muhammad

(məhăm`ĭd ĭkhbäl`), 1877–1938, Indian Muslim poet, philosopher, and political leader. He studied at Government College, Lahore, Cambridge, and the Univ. of Munich, and then he taught philosophy at Government College and practiced law. He was elected (1927) to the Punjab provincial legislature and served (1930) as president of the Muslim LeagueMuslim League,
political organization of India and Pakistan, founded 1906 as the All-India Muslim League by Aga Khan III. Its original purpose was to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in India.
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. An advocate initially of a pan-Islamic movement that would transcend national boundaries, he became a supporter of an independent homeland for India's Muslims and aligned himself with Muhammad Ali JinnahJinnah, Muhammad Ali
, 1876–1948, founder of Pakistan, b. Karachi. After his admission to the bar in England, he returned to India to practice law. Early in his career he was a fervent supporter of the Indian National Congress and an advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity.
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. He is regarded by many as the spiritual founder of Pakistan, and the anniversary of his death (Apr. 21) is a national holiday. Iqbal was the foremost Muslim thinker of his period, and in his many volumes of poetry (written in Urdu and Persian) and essays, he urged a regeneration of Islam through the love of God and the active development of the self. He was a firm believer in freedom and the creative force that freedom can exert on men. He was knighted in 1922. His works include The Secrets of the Self (1915, tr. 1940), and Javid-nama (1934, tr. 1966).

Bibliography

See biographical studies by A. A. Beg (1961), A. Schimmel (1963), H. Malik, ed. (1971), and S. M. Burney (1987).

Iqbal, Muhammad

 

Born Feb. 22,1873 or 1877, in Sial-kot, Punjab; died Apr. 21, 1938, in Lahore. Hindustani poet, philosopher, and public figure.

Iqbal studied in Lahore and then in Britain and Germany. He began publishing his works in the late 1890’s. He addressed himself to the Muslims not only of India but of the entire East—for instance, his narrative poems in Persian The Secrets of the Self (1915), The Mysteries of Selflessness (1918), The Message of the East (1923), and The Book ofJavid (1932). In addition to a collection of early verses in Urdu, The Caravan Bell (1924), Iqbal published the collections Gabriel’s Wing (1935), The Staff of Moses (1936), and The Gifts of Gedzhaz (1938), in which he celebrated man’s creative activity and called for a restructuring of life. Iqbal’s creative work is permeated with humanism and patriotism. Nevertheless, his philosophical and sociopolitical opinions are marked by a certain contradictory quality. While criticizing the capitalistic system, Iqbal at the same time defended private property and individualism.

Iqbal welcomed the October Revolution and had a sympathetic attitude toward the ideas of socialism (his narrative poem Lenin), but he was opposed to “communistic atheism.” In 1930, Iqbal declared himself in favor of the future creation of a Muslim state in northwest India to be included within an independent Indian federation. This declaration led the advocates of the formation of Pakistan to consider Iqbal an originator of their movement.

WORKS

Zvon karavannogo kolokol’chika. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from Urdu and Persian.)

REFERENCES

Anikeev, N. P. Vydaiushchiisia myslitel’i poet Mukhammad Ikbal. Moscow, 1959.
Gordon-Polonskaia, L. R. Musul’manskie techeniiav obshchestvennoi mysli Indii i Pakistana. Moscow, 1963. Chapter 7.
Prigarina, N. I. Poeziia Mukhammada Ikbala (1900–1924gg.).Moscow, 1972.
Ghani, A., and K. Ilahi. A Bibliography of Iqbal. Lahore, 1959.

G. A. ZOGRAF and L. I. IUREVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
Dr Mussadiq said that they do not need a country where the dreams of the Founder of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and poet of the East Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal were crushed by the doctrine of necessity.
To the students studying under Allama Muhammad Iqbal Scholarships, being offered by the Government of Pakistan, the President said the great poet Iqbal had termed Asia like a body with Afghanistan its heart and had said that if there was no peace in Afghanistan, there could be no peace in Asia.
He said, it is the responsibility of our literary persons to take stand against those negative elements who were creating propaganda against Quaid-i-Azam, Allama Muhammad Iqbal and other leaders and heroes by distorting the facts.
The footage begins with commemorating the ideology of the poet of the nation Allama Muhammad Iqbal and goes on to depict the struggle culminating in the creation of Pakistan.
She said that the celebrations would continue till 30th of December and the nation would have to renew its pledge and determination to pursue the course chartered for it by Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
The Allama Muhammad Iqbal Award of 3,000 scholarships to Afghan students by HEC costing Rs.
They paid rich tributes to services of Allama Muhammad Iqbal for the spiritual awakening of Muslims of Sub-Continent through his poetry.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal was a visionary poet who conceived the idea of separate homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent that was ultimately materialized in the shape of Pakistan, said Speaker National Assembly Sardar Ayaz Sadiq in his message on the occasion of the 140th birth anniversary of Allama Muhammad Iqbal.
QUETTA -- The Balochistan government declared a public holiday for educational institutes across the province to mark the birth anniversary of the Poet of East Allama Muhammad Iqbal falling on Wednesday.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal born in November 9, 1877, was the leader of Pakistan Movement, who conceived the idea of Pakistan.
The idea of Pakistan, a separate homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent where they could lead their lives according to their faith and aspirations, was conceived by our national poet Allama Muhammad Iqbal.
In a message by Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari it was pointed out that the freedom and independence of the people of Pakistan living as an independent nation is in no small measure due to the great vision of a great visionary Allama Muhammad Iqbal.