They display a fairly uniform modal composition and consist of feldspar, quartz, amphibole, clinopyroxene, and small quantities of opaque oxide, titanite, allanite
, and rare epidote, tourmaline and (?) olivine.
Summary of the activity per unit mass measured for the different radionuclides that constitute the smaller measured NORM samples Sample Radionuclide Activity (Bq/kg) Uncertainty (%) Allanite
K-40 1397 35 Ra-226 1155 35 Th-232 17855 30 U-238 2178 35 Monozite Ra-226 24740 25 Th-232 170903 25 Pyrochlore Ra-226 1836 40 Th-232 35303 30 U-238 7833 35 Zircon Ra-226 232 40 Th-232 14 45 U-238 219 40 ISG Pye Ra-226 67 26 Th-232 54 42 K-40 151 48 DAP Ra-226 15 29 Th-232 10 34 U-238 1923 35 K-40 6 30 CEMEX Ra-226 57 28 type FC Th-232 39 27 U-238 139 48 K-40 60 30 Monocalcium Ra-226 16 23 phosphate (biofos) Th-232 11 43 U-238 1970 31 K-40 6 29 Australian Ra-226 1963 37 zircon sand Th-232 442 33 U-238 3179 39 In order to address this problem, a simulated NORM sample was designed as part of this work.
Accessory minerals (fine-grained microlitic zircon, apatite, monazite, and allanite
) were identified and confirmed using a scanning electron microscope including backscattered electron imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray element mapping.
The REE in clastic sediments are concentrated in detrital accessory minerals, mainly phosphates (notably monazite and apatite for LREE and xenotime for HREE), minor silicates (notably allanite
, titanate, and zoisite for LREE, garnet and zircon for HREE), and adsorbed to clays (especially HREE).
Athol, for example, is noted for allanite
(5) Fission tracks are produced in minerals that contain trace amounts of uranium, such as zircon, apatite, titanite, allanite
, garnet, and micas as well as in U-bearing silicic volcanic glasses.
The minerals of the matrix are less than 30 microns in size and consist of a rather isotropic intergrowth of K-feldspar, albite, quartz, white mica, chlorite, epidote, allanite
, calcite, with accessory stilpnomelane, biotite, pyrrhotite/pyrite, sphalerite, apatite, zircon, and ilmenite decomposed to titanite and rutile.
Typical accessory minerals include apatite, zircon, fluorite, magnetite, titanite, and allanite
. Molybdenite and galena are met locally.
Accessory minerals are apatite, zircon, ilmenite, rarely magmatic andalusite, cordierite, monazite, xenotime and allanite
Schlieren consists of biotite, amphibole, zircon, allanite
, monazite, magnetite, and fluorite.
The mineral constituents are K-feldspar (microperthite), plagioclase, quartz, riebekite, hornblende, aegirine-augite, biotite, apatite, zircon, allanite
, titanite, epidote, rutile and magnetite.
Laser-ablation U-Th-Pb in situ dating of zircon and allanite
: an example from the October Harbor granite, central coastal Labrador, Canada.