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inflammation of the membrane lining a sinus, esp a nasal sinus
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses in man and animals. In humans, acute sinusitis usually arises as a complication of influenza, acute respiratory diseases, or other infectious diseases; chronic sinusitis develops from acute sinusitis that has not been completely cured.

The general symptoms of acute sinusitis include elevated body temperature, headache, abundant nasal discharge, and difficulty in breathing through the nose, most often on one side. With chronic sinusitis, there is usually no increase in body temperature and the other symptoms are less pronounced. Localization of the process determines the symptoms. Sinusitis may be catarrhal or purulent, depending on the type of inflammation. With chronic sinusitis, proliferations of the mucosa (polyps) often form in the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity.

Several different forms of sinusitis are distinguished, depending on which sinus is affected. The most common form is maxillary sinusitis, which is an inflammation of the maxillary sinus. With frontal sinusitis, the frontal sinus becomes inflamed; with ethmoid sinusitis, the ethmoidal labyrinth; and with sphenoid sinusitis, the sphenoidal sinus. Sometimes the inflammatory process spreads to all the paranasal sinuses on one or both sides (pansinusitis). Treatment includes the use of medicinal agents, the administration of heat (hot-water bag, compress), and physical therapy. Sometimes surgical treatment is indicated. Prophylaxis includes the timely treatment of the cause of the disease. [23–1294–]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Inflammation of a paranasal sinus.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
HLA-DQB1 *03 in allergic fungal sinusitis and other chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis disorders.
* Allergic fungal sinusitis. Patients with this condition--like the aforementioned 16-year-old--are almost always atopic with chronic pansinusitis and positive skin tests to one or more fungi.
"No one knows how best to treat allergic fungal sinusitis. [But] clearly, repetitive surgical procedures result in scarring, loss of normal mucociliary function, and the creation of nasal cripples," he said.
Chan KO et al., (12) in their study of effectiveness of Itraconazole in allergic fungal infections showed that 28% significant improvement, 28% moderate improvement and 44% no change following administration of Itraconazole for refractory allergic fungal sinusitis.
The preoperative impression was chronic sinusitis or allergic fungal sinusitis equally in both groups.
Allergic fungal sinusitis usually occurs in young immunocompetent patients ranging in age from early childhood to their late 40s, and it demonstrates equal sex distribution.
In general, management of allergic fungal sinusitis requires a combination of surgery and medical therapy to achieve the best long-term clinical outcome.
AFS (Allergic Fungal Sinusitis) as an adjuvant modality to surgery for decreasing recurrence rates.
The cases with evidence of polypoidal changes/polypi and radiological typical evidence of presence of allergic fungal sinusitis with bone erosion were included in this study.
Preoperative symptoms in the 208 patients (%) Patient population Nasal Facial Purulent obstruction pain drainage All patients 82.1 52.3 36.8 Patients w/ Samter's triad 100.0 50.0 30.0 Patients w/ nasal polyps 89.5 46.8 29.5 Patients w/ asthma 90.0 55.6 34.8 Patients w/ polyps and asthma 100.0 54.8 25.8 Patients w/ AFS * 78.2 47.6 33.3 Patients w/ cystic fibrosis 84.6 55.6 50.0 Patient population Postnasal Nasal drip Anosmia polyps All patients 34.5 9.5 51.0 Patients w/ Samter's triad 40.0 40.0 100.0 Patients w/ nasal polyps 39.5 15.8 100.0 Patients w/ asthma 44.2 19.1 71.2 Patients w/ polyps and asthma 46.7 22.6 100.0 Patients w/ AFS * 28.6 19.0 80.8 Patients w/ cystic fibrosis 33.3 0.0 71.4 * Allergic fungal sinusitis. Figure 1.
Major criteria for the presence of allergic fungal sinusitis include nasal polyposis, evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, eosinophilic mucus, characteristic CT findings of unilateral involvement and hyperdense areas in the affected sinus, and a positive fungal culture.
Dohar: From an epidemiologic standpoint, we certainly know that the continuum of fungal disease in the sinuses involves saprophytic colonization, mycetoma, allergic fungal sinusitis, invasive nonfulminant fungal sinusitis, and invasive fulminant fungal sinusitis.