Canadian Alliance

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Canadian Alliance,

former Canadian political party that had its origins in the Reform party of Canada, which was founded in 1987 in Winnipeg, Man., as a W Canada–based conservative alternative to the Progressive Conservative partyProgressive Conservative party,
former Canadian political party, formed in 1942 by the merger of the Progressive and Conservative parties. Beginning with the first Canadian prime minister, John A.
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. Fiscally conservative and strongly in favor of tax cuts, the Alliance was also strongly federalist. The Reform party's formation was spurred in part by reaction against Prime Minister Brian MulroneyMulroney, Brian
(Martin Brian Mulroney) , 1939–, Canadian prime minister (1984–93). Raised in Quebec in a working class family, Mulroney was a successful bilingual lawyer who became active in provincial politics in the 1970s.
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's attempts to negotiate a special status for QuebecQuebec
, Fr. Québec , province (2001 pop. 7,237,479), 594,860 sq mi (1,553,637 sq km), E Canada. Geography

Quebec is bounded on the N by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, on the E by the Labrador area of Newfoundland and Labrador and the Gulf of St.
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 within the Canadian confederation (see also Meech Lake AccordMeech Lake Accord,
set of constitutional reforms designed to induce Quebec to accept the Canada Act. The Accord's five basic points, proposed by Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa, include a guarantee of Quebec's special status as a "distinct society" and a commitment to Canada's
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). Led by Preston ManningManning, Preston,
1942–, Canadian political leader. Although he is the son of Ernest C. Manning, a leader of the Social Credit party who was premier of Alberta for 25 years, Preston Manning headed a management consulting firm for many years before he entered Canadian
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, the party campaigned strongly against the Charlottetown Accord (see CanadaCanada
, independent nation (2015 est. pop. 35,950,000), 3,851,787 sq mi (9,976,128 sq km), N North America. The second largest country in the world in area, Canada occupies all of North America N of the United States (and E of Alaska) except for Greenland and the French islands
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) in 1992, and in the 1993 elections it won 52 parliamentary seats, siphoning many votes from the Progressive Conservatives. In 1997, Reform won 60 seats, becoming the largest opposition party. The party re-formed as the Canadian Alliance in 2000 in an attempt to create a broad national conservative coalition to oppose the Liberal partyLiberal party,
Canadian political party. Prior to confederation in 1867, reform parties advocating greater local participation in provincial governments, free trade, and increased separation of church and state existed in Canada West, Canada East, and the Maritime Provinces.
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; in July, Stockwell DayDay, Stockwell,
1950–, Canadian political leader, b. Barrie, Ontario. He grew up in Montreal, attended (1970–71) the Univ. of Victoria, and held such jobs as auctioneer, deckhand, lumberjack, contractor, Christian educator, and evangelical lay pastor before entering
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 defeated Manning in a campaign for the leadership of the Alliance. Although the Alliance was the largest opposition party by far in the 2000 elections, a conservative coalition failed to coalesce, limiting the number of seats the Alliance won to 66. The Alliance remained a largely western party. Stephen HarperHarper, Stephen,
1959–, prime minister (2006–15) of Canada. A founding member of the conservative Reform party (later the Canadian Alliance), he won a seat in the federal parliament in 1993, but broke with party leader Preston Manning four years later and left
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 replaced Day as party leader in 2002, and in 2003 the party and the Progressive Conservative party agreed to merge as the Conservative partyConservative party,
in Canada. 1 Former Canadian political party that merged with the Progressive party to form the Progressive Conservative party.

2 Officially the Conservative party of Canada,
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 of Canada. Harper became the leader of the new party in 2004.
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