Allmende

Allmende

 

a tract of land—pasture, forest, meadow, wasteland, or fishing area—used commonly by the members of one or several territorial communes (or marks) among the German peoples in the early Middle Ages and in the countries of Western Europe in the later Middle Ages.

The Allmende was a necessary mainstay of the peasant economy. In the course of the development of feudal relations the Allmende gradually decreased, and the sovereign right to its ownership passed to the feudal lords, who sought to gain personal control over it or its parts (in French, triage). Demands for free access to the communal land tracts or for their return were voiced in the majority of peasant uprisings of the 14th, 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries.

The breaking up of the old agricultural order and the penetration of capitalist relations into the village resulted in the complete abolition of the Allmende. In England the Allmende became the property of the landlords during the enclosures; in France the triage was done away with during the Great French Revolution and the communal lands were distributed among the members of the communes. In a number of countries—for example, western and southern Germany, Switzerland, and Scandinavia—remnants of the Allmende may be found even in modern times.

L. A. KOTEL’NIKOVA

Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
1500-1850 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2002); Hartmut Zuckert, Allmende und Allmendenaufhebung.
La forma legal que adquirio la expropiacion, por precios irrisorios o bien directamente por la fuerza, de las antiguas propiedades comunales en el Reino Unido (commons) -y el mismo proceso lo encontramos en Alemania (Allmende), Francia (communaux) o Espana (ejidos)- fueron las Bills for Inclosures of Commons (Leyes para el cercado de las tierras comunales), descritas por Marx como <<decretos por los que los senores feudales se regalan a si mismos las tierras del pueblo como propiedad privada.>> (David Harvey recuperaria mas tarde este capitulo de El capital para su formulacion del concepto de "acumulacion por desposesion", mostrando que este proceso no se detiene historicamente, sino que es inherente al modo de produccion capitalista.)
Weibel (2000): "Ressourcensteuerung in Netzwerken: Eine Tragodie der Allmende?," in Steuerung ron Netzwerken--Konzepte und Praktiken.
En lo que se refiere a las instituciones donde se creia encontrar la supervivencia de un antiguo comunismo de villorrio (Mir ruso, Allmende de Suiza), acepta que su formacion fue posterior.
Los pastizales y los bosques eran organizados como tierras colectivas ("Allmende"), las cuales eran superficies no divididas del conjunto local.
Con el objetivo de individualizar la sociedad, la "Allmende" fue dividida en propiedad privada.
--, "Wie tragisch war die Allmende?", en GAIA, Vol.7, No.
In addition to the traditional rebelliousness of the lower classes, generally caused by disputes about common land (Allmende) or forestry, or by poverty, poor conditions of life or hostility to the local priest, (31) the radical-liberal protest and violence could often be traced to liberal clubs concerned with culture and sport together with the dissemination of the local culture and folklore.
We too knew the communal land, the "Allmende" as we called it - or the "commons" (see Illich, 1982; Boehme, 1988).
Fur die Uberbeanspruchung dieser Allmende steht eine Losung aus.