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chemical elements—mainly metals —that are added to alloys to impart specific properties to them. The main alloying elements are the following:
(1) For steel and cast iron: chromium, nickel, manganese, silicon, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, titanium, zirconium, beryllium, niobium, cobalt, aluminum, copper, boron, and magnesium.
(2) For aluminum alloys: silicon, copper, magnesium, zinc, manganese, titanium, and zirconium.
(3) For copper alloys: zinc, tin, lead, aluminum, manganese, iron, nickel, and beryllium.
(4) For magnesium alloys: aluminum, zinc, manganese, and zirconium.
(5) For lead alloys: tin, zinc, and antimony.
(6) For nickel alloys: chromium, iron, titanium, and aluminum.
Alloying elements are usually added to the metal to be alloyed in the form of melts.