Imidazoles, triazoles and allylamines
are the group of antifungal agents with specific antifungal activity that can be applied topically or taken orally.
and benzylamines are not the subject of this writing, one should notice from the figure that these drugs also inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol, though at a different level in the pathway.
, including terbinafine and naftifine (available in 1% creams or 1% solutions), provide cure rates of > 75% and require only once-daily application for shorter periods.
(12-14) It is a member of a new class of antifungal agents, the allylamines
, which have a different mechanism of action (squalene epoxidase inhibitor) than the azoles have.
As per the existing literatures, antifungal drugs have been classified into three classes of natural products (griseofulvin, polyenes and echinocandins) and four classes of synthetic drugs (azoles, allylamines
, phenylmorpholines and flucytosine) having clinical value against mycotic infections.
At present, there are many chemically synthesized antidermatophytic drugs, including polyenes, fluoropyrimidine, azole, allylamines
, and triazole .
glabrata have increased in frequency with limited antifungal drugs sensitive to them including polyenes, azoles, allylamines
, and echinocandins classes due to the evolution of drug resistance rapidly to Candida species .
indicated that OligoG improved antifungal activity of commonly used polyenes, azoles, and allylamines
against Aspergillus and Candida strains .
While the discovery of drugs based on polyenes, azoles, and allylamines
may represent significant advances in the field of antifungal agent research, several challenges common to other pathogenic organisms such as side effects, narrow spectrum of activity, and the development of drug-resistant fungi must be overcome [98, 99].
There has been much interest in using them as starting material for the synthesis of allylamines
. Only a small number of transition-metal catalyzed intermolecular hydroamination reactions of allenes have been described [9-14].
Patents granted include composition of matter claims for topical formulations of antifungal allylamines
(including terbinafine), as well as methods of treatment claims for treating onychomycosis using these novel formulations, enabling enhanced penetration of antifungal allylamines
into and through the nail.
Moreover, the antifungal drugs available to successfully treat these infections are becoming increasingly limited, with polyenes, allylamines
, azoles (e.g.