Almoravids

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Almoravids

(ălmôr`əvĭdz), Berber Muslim dynasty that ruled Morocco and Muslim Spain in the 11th and 12th cent. The Almoravids may have originated in what is now MauritaniaMauritania
, officially Islamic Republic of Mauritania, republic (2005 est. pop. 3,087,000), 397,953 sq mi (1,030,700 sq km), NW Africa. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean in the west, on Western Sahara in the northwest and north, on Algeria in the northeast, on Mali in the east
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. The real founder was Abd Allah ibn Yasin, who by military force converted a number of Saharan tribes to his own reformed religion and then advanced on Morocco. After his death (c.1059), Yusuf ibn TashfinYusuf ibn Tashfin
, d. 1106, ruler in the dynasty of the Almoravids (c.1059–1106). A Muslim, he led the Berbers in N Africa, continued the conquest of Morocco, took Algeria, and founded (1062) Marrakech, which became his capital.
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 and his brother Abu BakrAbu Bakr
, 573–634, 1st caliph, friend, father-in-law, and successor of Muhammad. He was probably Muhammad's first convert outside the Prophet's family and alone accompanied Muhammad on the Hegira.
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 came to power. MarrakechMarrakech
or Marrakesh
, city (1994 pop. 672,478), W central Morocco. The city, renowned for leather goods, is one of the principal commercial centers of Morocco and a major tourist center.
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 was founded in 1062 and was the center of a powerful empire. Called by the Moors in Spain to help stem Christian reconquest, Yusuf entered Andalusia and defeated (1086) Alfonso VI of Castile. He later subdued the local Muslim rulers and governed Muslim Spain and N Morocco (Abu Bakr ruling over S Morocco). The dynasty also pushed south, destroying the ancient state of GhanaGhana
, ancient empire, W Africa, in the savanna region of what is now E Senegal, SW Mali, and S Mauritania. The empire was founded c.6th cent. by Soninke peoples and lay astride the trans-Saharan caravan routes. Its capital was Kumbi Salih (in present-day SE Mauritania).
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. The Almoravids were rough and puritanical, contemptuous of the luxurious Muslim courts in Spain. Their rule was never entirely stable and in the 12th cent. was attacked by the AlmohadsAlmohads
, Berber Muslim dynasty that ruled Morocco and Spain in the 12th and 13th cent. It had its origins in the puritanical sect founded by Ibn Tumart, who stirred up (c.1120) the tribes of the Atlas Mts. area to purify Islam and oust the Almoravids.
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, who finally (by 1174) won both Morocco and Muslim Spain.
References in periodicals archive ?
Within two months of their arrival in Baghdad, in Dhu l-Qa'da 489 (October-November 1096), (53) Abu Bakr and 'Abd Allah went on pilgrimage and continued their campaign on behalf of the Almoravid rulers.
Ibn Tumart, the founder of the Almoravid dynasty, encouraged Ibn Bajjah to discuss religious matters with him, given the latter's love of knowledge.
For more examples of Almoravid fervor, see Alejandro Garcia-Sanjuan, "Jews and Christians in Almoravid Seville as Portrayed by the Islamic Jurist Ibn 'Abdun," Medieval Encounters 14 (2008): 78-98, esp.
But then, the Almoravid Koubba was built in 1117 but only unearthed from centuries' accretion of debris in 1948by a foreign archeologist.
The Almoravids rejected the lavish decoration that had dominated the architectural style of their predecessors the Umayyad, and built on a practical rather than a monumental scale - piety prevented them from erecting elegant or magnificent buildings.
Based on Hollar, the first two towers east of the Porta (I N (E), II N (E)) (PR001) were plain, square structures conceivably congruent with an Almohad or even Almoravid origin.
Likewise, the reader is left to her own devices when trying to figure out why "Throughout the Almoravid and Almohadid (sic
muwashshahat poet al-Abyad (who was crucified by the Almoravid governor
It is hard to find fault with such a statement when one considers the momentous events which serve as bookends for the period: the death of Basil II, the fall of Cordoba, the rise of the Salian dynasty, and the emergence of the reforming Papacy on the one end, and the Horns of Hattin, Almoravid invasion in Iberia, the failure of the Angevin "empire," the elections of Innocent Ill and Frederick II, and the destruction of the Byzantine Empire at the other.
Founded in 1062 AD by sultan Youssef bin Tachfin, the city flirted with importance under the control of the powerful Almoravid, Almo-had and Saadi dynasties - it was briefly made the capital of Morocco in the 16th century.
Between them the history of the medieval empires that flourished in Mali are chronicled--the empire of Ancient Ghana, destroyed by Almoravid invasions from the north, the Mali Empire from the thirteenth to late fourteenth century, the Songay Empire to the late sixteenth century and so on up to the arrival of the French in the later nineteenth, coinciding with a final imperial flourish with the Tukolor Empire based on a revival of Islam.
35) Attributes similar to those characterising the popular social layers, under the Almoravid and Almohade rule, see Manuela Marin, 'La vida cotidiana', in El Retroceso Territorial de Al-Andalus --Almoravides y Almohades--siglos XI al XIII, Historia de Espana, ed.