Almoravides


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.
Related to Almoravides: Almohades
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Almoravides

 

the name used in literature for the dynasty and feudal state (from the middle of the 11th century until 1146) which came into being during the course of the movement of the Berber tribes of North Africa and was headed by Abdullah ibn Yasin. The movement was centered in Mauritania, where the ribat (monastery) of Abdullah ibn Yasin was located. His followers were called al-Murabitun, which means “the people of the ribat” (in Spanish, Almoravides). They had to lead the life of hermits and study the art of war in preparation for the struggle against “enemies of the faith.” The military command was in the hands of the emirs of the Lamtun tribe, specifically Yahya ibn Omar (died 1056) and then his brother Abu Bakr ibn Omar (1059–1087 or 1088). “Lamtuna,” the old name for the Almoravides, is derived from that of the Lamtun tribe. By the middle of the 11th century the Almoravides had subjugated southern Morocco and were continuing their conquests, which were accompanied by the physical annihilation of the so-called infidels and apostates and by a struggle against unjust rulers and “illegal taxes.” This struggle secured for the Almoravides the support of the masses and contributed to the rapid success of the movement. In 1061, Yusuf ibn-Tashfin removed his uncle Abu Bakr ibn Omar from the leadership of the movement, took the title of Emir al-Muslimin, and after the death of Abu Bakr became the religious and secular head of the Almoravides. By 1090 the Almoravides had subjugated Muslim Spain. Marrakech was the capital of the state that comprised Morocco, western Algeria, Spain, and the Balearic Islands.

The requisitions and excesses of the troops and rulers, especially under the successors of ibn-Tashfin (Ali ibn Yusuf, who ruled 1106–43; Tashfin ibn Ali, 1143–45; Ibrahim ibn Tashfin, 1145—46; and Ishak ibn Ali, 1146), gave rise to broad discontent which was further increased by religious intolerance. All these factors weakened the state of the Almoravides, which was unable to resist the Almohads.

REFERENCE

Julien, C. A. Istoriia Severnoi Afriki, vol. 2, ch. 3. Moscow, 1961. (Translated from French; bibliography.)

N. A. IVANOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(87.) Vincent Lagardere, "La haute judicature a Pepoque Almoravide en al-Andalus," al-Qantara 7 (1986): 207.
These Green spaces accompanied the historical evolution of Rabat, he underlined, saying that the Chellah gardens date back to the Roman era, the Kasbah Oudaya was built by the Almoravides and flourished during the Almohade reign.
Depuis l'Est avec les invasions hilaliennes du 5e/XIe siecle et l'Ouest sous la houlette des Almoravides, le Hodna connait egalement un renouvellement sensible de son peuplement.
(35) Estos deseos de incorporarse a las Cruzadas debieron ser compartidos por muchos castellanos y leoneses de su epoca, aun cuando los territorios de ambos reinos estuvieran amenazados por los Almoravides. Solo asi se explica la insistencia de Pascual II en no permitir que caballeros y clerigos hispanicos se trasladaran a Tierra Santa.