Almoravides


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.
Related to Almoravides: Almohades

Almoravides

 

the name used in literature for the dynasty and feudal state (from the middle of the 11th century until 1146) which came into being during the course of the movement of the Berber tribes of North Africa and was headed by Abdullah ibn Yasin. The movement was centered in Mauritania, where the ribat (monastery) of Abdullah ibn Yasin was located. His followers were called al-Murabitun, which means “the people of the ribat” (in Spanish, Almoravides). They had to lead the life of hermits and study the art of war in preparation for the struggle against “enemies of the faith.” The military command was in the hands of the emirs of the Lamtun tribe, specifically Yahya ibn Omar (died 1056) and then his brother Abu Bakr ibn Omar (1059–1087 or 1088). “Lamtuna,” the old name for the Almoravides, is derived from that of the Lamtun tribe. By the middle of the 11th century the Almoravides had subjugated southern Morocco and were continuing their conquests, which were accompanied by the physical annihilation of the so-called infidels and apostates and by a struggle against unjust rulers and “illegal taxes.” This struggle secured for the Almoravides the support of the masses and contributed to the rapid success of the movement. In 1061, Yusuf ibn-Tashfin removed his uncle Abu Bakr ibn Omar from the leadership of the movement, took the title of Emir al-Muslimin, and after the death of Abu Bakr became the religious and secular head of the Almoravides. By 1090 the Almoravides had subjugated Muslim Spain. Marrakech was the capital of the state that comprised Morocco, western Algeria, Spain, and the Balearic Islands.

The requisitions and excesses of the troops and rulers, especially under the successors of ibn-Tashfin (Ali ibn Yusuf, who ruled 1106–43; Tashfin ibn Ali, 1143–45; Ibrahim ibn Tashfin, 1145—46; and Ishak ibn Ali, 1146), gave rise to broad discontent which was further increased by religious intolerance. All these factors weakened the state of the Almoravides, which was unable to resist the Almohads.

REFERENCE

Julien, C. A. Istoriia Severnoi Afriki, vol. 2, ch. 3. Moscow, 1961. (Translated from French; bibliography.)

N. A. IVANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
A el le sucedio su hijo Imad al-Dawla, el cual para frenar la llegada de los almoravides recurrio a la proteccion de los cristianos pagando fuertes parias (15).
La cuestion historica es que en efecto los de Valencia pidieron auxilio al almoravide Yusuf ibn Taxufin, que no se la presto, y lo narrado en los vv.
Vincent Lagardere, "La haute judicature a Pepoque Almoravide en al-Andalus," al-Qantara 7 (1986): 207.
La intolerancia religiosa del largo periodo de dominio almoravide y almohade en al-Andaluz y el Magreb (1090-1269), por ejemplo, afecto incluso a musulmanes caidos en desgracia ante el poder de turno.
3) Dozy, Reinhart, Histoire des musulmans d'Espagne jusqu' a la conquete de l'Andalousie par les Almoravides, (711-1110), E.
Codera y Zaidin, Francisco (1889), Decadencia y desaparicion de los almoravides en Espana, vol.
Les menaces que les almoravides avaient fait peser sur Tolede avaient disparu et, en 1152, l'eveque de Segovie Jean (1152-1166) succedait a Raymond de la Sauvetat sur le trone archiepiscopal et appelait dans le chapitre l'archidiacre de Cuellar Dominicus.
Con la llegada de los Almoravides, las minorias judias debieron refugiarse en la corte cristiana, la que en un primer momento recibio a los judios, pero luego los rechazo.
Los invasores almoravides los trajeron consigo y nada mas llegar, en octubre del ano 1086, consiguieron una resonante victoria en Sagrajas sobre los cristianos, que no supieron reaccionar aturdidos por el espectaculo que ofrecian los velos negros que cubrian el rostro de aquellos feroces guerreros, las masas compactas de sus dromedarios y el redoble de los tambores.
Hasta esos anos de finales del siglo XI, no solo el Reino de Leon, sino los restantes estados cristianos se ha utilizado para las escasas transacciones un doble patron bimetalico (de oro y plata) inspirado en los sistemas foraneos mas avanzados; por un lado existen circulando desde el siglo VIII monedas acunadas por los emires omeyas independientes con ceca del Al Andalus, y desde el siglo X, con Abderraman III, monedas califales andalusies a las que sucederan los sistemas almoravides y almohades, que eran los vigentes al inicio de las acunaciones cristianas.
Las grandes creaciones omeyas, almoravides, almohades y nazaries", senala, "han de ser vistas hoy como paradigma de una vision ecumenica que incluya las nociones de diferencia, anomalia, mezcolanza y fecundacion".
16) Alfonso VI habia sufrido las tremendas derrotas de Sagrajas (Badajoz) y Ucles (Cuenca) a manos de los almoravides.