578/1183), was in his late thirties at the time of Ibn Barrajdn's death and although he wrote his biographical dictionary under both the Almoravids
and the Almohads, he makes no reference to Ibn Barrajan.
Chapter five, "Economy and Trade within and beyond Imperial Frontiers, 1050-1250," which includes discussion of taxes and coins, situates the Almoravids
and Almohads in the diverse terrain of their domains and the long duree of agricultural production, outlines their place in the history of urbanization in the Islamic West, and illustrates the importance of trade routes and networks to their emergence and the maintenance of their power.
Heir to the Huddid family that once ruled the taifa of Zaragoza, of which he was dispossessed by the Almoravids
in 1110 before taking refuge in the fortress of Rueda de Jalon, 'King Zafadola' then became a close collaborator of Alfonso VII and the leader of the Muslim resistance against the Maghrebi Berbers.
In 1091, the Abbasid kingdom fell into the hands of the Almoravid
dynasty, a Berber imperial dynasty of Morocco.
Born in the 12th century in Seville, Ibn Zuhr conducted original research in therapeutics, tumours, and abscesses while serving as a physician to both the Almoravid
and Ahmohad courts.
Ibn Khaldun was able to show how periods of urbane tolerance and laxity by Muslims in the western Mediterranean were regularly interrupted by the arrival and rule of rigorous fundamentalists such as the Almoravids
and the Almohads, who strictly and brutally enforced sharia.
(1040-1147), and the Almohads (1121-1269) after them, also occupied parts of the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula.
Sueur, J 2005, 'Decolonizing "French universalism": reconsidering the impact of the Algerian war on French intellectuals', in J Clancy-Smith (ed.), North Africa, Islam and the Mediterranean world: from the Almoravids
to the Algerian war, Frank Cass, London.
We have been like this since the Almoravids
, if not the Idrissids before them.
In some respects, one can see both sides of this argument, because, as Payne indicates, the eleventh and twelfth centuries' Almoravids
and Almohads were fanatical Islamic forces who perpetrated violent acts against nonbelievers.
And whether the Moroccans want to connect the event to the city of Marrakesh, the capital of Almoravids
and Almohads; or whether the Algerians want to cling to that the idea was born in Zeralda, what is certain is that the detente in the relationships of the two countries was behind the rebirth of that momentum that had nearly turned into an illusion.
rejected the lavish decoration that had dominated the architectural style of their predecessors the Umayyad, and built on a practical rather than a monumental scale - piety prevented them from erecting elegant or magnificent buildings.