alpha particle

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alpha particle,

one of the three types of radiation resulting from natural radioactivityradioactivity,
spontaneous disintegration or decay of the nucleus of an atom by emission of particles, usually accompanied by electromagnetic radiation. The energy produced by radioactivity has important military and industrial applications.
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. Alpha radiation (or alpha rays) was distinguished and named by E. R. Rutherford in 1909, who found by measuring the charge and mass of alpha particles that they are the nuclei of ordinary helium atoms. Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons (see nucleusnucleus,
in physics, the extremely dense central core of an atom. The Nature of the Nucleus
Composition

Atomic nuclei are composed of two types of particles, protons and neutrons, which are collectively known as nucleons.
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).
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alpha particle

(α particle) The nucleus of a helium atom, i.e. a positively charged particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons. It is thus a fully ionized helium atom. Alpha particles are very stable. They are often ejected in nuclear reactions, including alpha decay in which a parent nucleus disintegrates – or breaks up – into an alpha particle and a lighter daughter nucleus.
Collins Dictionary of Astronomy © Market House Books Ltd, 2006

alpha particle

[′al·fə ‚pärd·ə·kəl]
(atomic physics)
A positively charged particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons, identical with the nucleus of the helium atom; emitted by several radioactive substances.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

alpha particle

a helium-4 nucleus, containing two neutrons and two protons, emitted during some radioactive transformations
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

alpha particle

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References in periodicals archive ?
Alpha emitters can induce DNA lesions in stem cells that result in the transmission of chromosomal instability to their progeny (Kadhim et al.
"EDF should have tested for alpha emitters prior to the dumping.
Alpha emitters deposit higher energy over a significantly shorter distance versus beta emitters, providing single-cell kill while leaving normal surrounding tissue unharmed.
The high linear energy transfer of alpha emitters may cause double-strand DNA breaks in adjacent cells, resulting in an anti-tumor effect on bone metastases.
Thorium and uranium isotopes' radiation, as well as radiation of alpha emitters, can lead to soft error occurrences in memories.
Furthermore, multiaberrant cells, characteristic for incorporated alpha emitters, were identified well beyond 100 km from Chernobyl, whereas plutonium particles were found as far away as Norway, contradicting "negligible exposure levels" beyond 100 km [International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) 2006; Schmitz-Feuerhake 2006; Schmitz-Feuerhake et al.