In 1834, the water broke through and caused serious floods along the lower course of the Alpheios. The plain of Pheneos became dry and could be cultivated again.
The southern arcuate lagoon-barrier system receives its sediments from the Alpheios River delta and a few smaller streams to the south.
The Alpheios River delta is both prograding and aggrading with lateral overbank-floodplain components to the northwest and southeast (Fig.
(36) Lambeck, correctly noting the limitations of a uniform global eustatic curve, has presented as an alternative the more complex concept of glacio-hydro-isostatic impact on sea levels in the Aegean region (37) Lambeck's maps of predicted sea levels in the delta of the Alpheios River and Cape Katakolon, showing sea levels of -49 m 10,000 b.p.,-4 m 6000 b.p., and -1.15 m ca.
Our research was mostly carried out in the area that extends, southeast to northwest, from the clifflike massif at Lake Kaiafa (Classical Samikon), to the Alpheios River delta (Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman Epitalion: Homeric Thryon), and to Cape Katakolon (ancient Pheia).
Since then, the sands carried by littoral transport from the Alpheios River delta have formed barrier accretion ridges that have isolated a broad, shallow coastal lagoon.
(47) The point projects westward to narrow the coastal plain sharply to a natural pass, where a wooded sandbank separates Lake Kaiafa from the southern extremity of the larger Agoulenitsa Lagoon that extends northwest to the mouth of the Alpheios River.
2 km wide) once extended along the coast from Lake Kaiafa to just south of the Alpheios River delta (Fig.
About 500 m south of the Alpheios Bridge, where the national highway is bordered on its east by a ridge of hills and on its west by an irrigation canal, the four hills of Ayios Yeoryios rise to a height of 60-70 masl.
(57) MH and LH sherds found at the sandy bottom of one trench were interpreted by the excavator as having washed down from the prehistoric settlement on the hills to the east, (58) a site which, overlooking the old Alpheios fort, offered obvious strategic advantages.
Figure 11 indicates the broad triangular shape of the Holocene delta of the Alpheios River and, to the northwest, relicts of arcuate strandlines that show through the delta sediments.
The Alpheios River presents no evidence of having made a major tributary debouchment into Agoulenitsa Lagoon in the past several hundred years, although the bulbous shoreline of the Alpheios River delta, as shown in Figure 11, does suggest a broad, swinging, fanlike pattern of migrating channels throughout the historical period.