Alsace-Lorraine

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Alsace-Lorraine,

former region, Germany: see under AlsaceAlsace
, Ger. Elsass, former province and former administrative region, E France. It is separated from Germany by a part of the Rhine River. It comprises the departments of Bas-Rhin, Haut-Rhin, and the Territory of Belfort (a department created after the Franco-Prussian
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, France.

Alsace-Lorraine

 

a Reichsland (imperial territory) of Germany from 1871 to 1918 that was created from the Alsatian departments of Haut-Rhin and Bas-Rhin (excluding the territory of Belfort) and part of the Lorraine departments of Meurthe and Moselle, all of which had been won from France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71.

Alsace-Lorraine was initially administered by an Oberpräsident, who was appointed by the emperor and was granted, under Paragraph 10 of the law of Dec. 30, 1871 (the Diktaturparagraf), the right to use all means, including military force, to maintain order. Alsace-Lorraine was given 15 seats in the German Reichstag, nearly all of which, in the 1870’s and 1880’s, were held by candidates of the leftist bourgeois Progress Party. Not until the late 1870’s was a local consultative body—the Landes-ausschuss—established and the Oberpräsident replaced by the Statthalter, a resident representing the chancellor.

The policy of enforced germanization pursued by the German government aroused resistance and resulted in 400,000 persons emigrating to France between 1872 and 1882. The annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, which contained one of Europe’s largest ironore deposits, contributed to Germany’s rapid industrial development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Industrial growth and the influx of German capital drew the local bourgeoisie closer to its German counterpart.

The supporters of autonomy for Alsace-Lorraine within the German Empire grew stronger. The Diktaturparagraf was repealed in 1902, a local legislative body—the Landtag—was established in 1911, and Alsace-Lorraine was given three seats in the German Reichsrat. The policy of ethnic discrimination and forced germanization continued, however, leading in 1913 to a grave political crisis (seeZABERN AFFAIR OF 1913).

Differences over the Alsace-Lorraine question played an important role in the overall conflict of interests between Germany and France that led to the outbreak of World War I. Under the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France. During World War II, Alsace-Lorraine was occupied in 1940 by fascist German troops; it was liberated in late 1944 and early 1945.

S. V. OBOLENSKAIA

Alsace-Lorraine

an area of NE France, comprising the modern regions of Alsace and Lorraine: under German rule 1871--1919 and 1940--44. Area: 14 522 sq. km (5607 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
As he has shown many times before, Fallon raises his game when underestimated and his never-saydie attitude was epitomised as he brought the James Fanshawetrained Alsace Lorraine home front in the European Breeders' Fund Upavon Fillies' Stakes.
Alsace Lorraine never really had a chance to show her best in the Windsor Forest as she was settled off the pace in a race where it can often pay to be prominent throughout.
This Listed heat looks a pretty strong affair, but Alsace Lorraine is taken to steal a march on her younger rivals.
One that takes the eye though is the filly Alsace Lorraine trained just down the road from the July Course by James Fanshawe.
00 Newmarket Sporting (50:25:10) 13-16 Sahpresa, Music Show, 11-14 Strawberrydaiquiri, Seta, 10-13 Spacious, 8-11 Rainfall, 4-6 Aviate, 1-3 Alsace Lorraine, Sent From Heaven, Hen Night, 0.
ALSACE Lorraine should be ideally suited by the step up to 10 furlongs in Salisbury's EBF Upavon Fillies' Stakes.
Her stable companion Alsace Lorraine also put up a good performance in the race to finish fourth and Fanshawe is delighted with the duo.
Alsace Lorraine Mould was originally from Tongwynlais.
Any lingering doubt was erased with a hat-trick for the former champion, spearheaded by Alsace Lorraine, on whom he masterfully overcame a variety of testing problems in Salisbury's second richest race of the year, the Listed EBF Upavon Fillies' Stakes.
Fanshawe's Alsace Lorraine is slowly creeping up the weights but she could still be one step ahead of the assessor in the Norman Court Stud Fillies' Handicap (4.
Alsace Lorraine attempts to put her last race behind her, when she was beaten favourite, and build on the promising performance when finishing fourth in the Windsor Forest Stakes at Royal Ascot the time before.