alternative medicine

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alternative medicine,

the treatment and prevention of disease by techniques that are regarded by modern Western medicine as scientifically unproven or unorthodox. The term alternative medicine can encompass a wide range of therapies, including chiropracticchiropractic
[Gr.,=doing by hand], medical practice based on the theory that all disease results from a disruption of the functions of the nerves. The principal source of interference is thought to be displacement (or subluxation) of vertebrae of the spine, although other areas
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, homeopathyhomeopathy
, system of medicine whose fundamental principle is the law of similars—that like is cured by like. It was first given practical application by Samuel Hahnemann of Leipzig, Germany, in the early 19th cent.
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, naturopathynaturopathy
or naturopathic medicine,
branch of alternative medicine concerned with holistic and noninvasive methods of treating illness and maintaining health.
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, acupunctureacupuncture
, technique of traditional Chinese medicine, in which a number of very fine metal needles are inserted into the skin at specially designated points. For thousands of years acupuncture has been used, along with herbal medicine, for pain relief and treatment of various
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, herbal medicineherbal medicine,
use of natural plant substances (botanicals) to treat and prevent illness. The practice has existed since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine for perhaps as much as 80% of the world's population.
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, meditation, biofeedbackbiofeedback,
method for learning to increase one's ability to control biological responses, such as blood pressure, muscle tension, and heart rate. Sophisticated instruments are often used to measure physiological responses and make them apparent to the patient, who then tries
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, massage therapy, and various "new age" therapies such as guided imagery and naturopathy. Although many alternative therapies have long been widely employed in the treatment of disease, the scientifically oriented modern medical establishment has typically been skeptical about, and sometimes strongly opposed to, their use. Despite this, Americans spend billions of dollars on alternative treatments each year. In 1993 the U.S. National Institutes of Health established the Office of Alternative Medicine to examine the merits of such techniques. See also holistic medicineholistic medicine,
system of health care based on a concept of the "whole" person as one whose body, mind, spirit, and emotions are in balance with the environment. Stressing personal responsibility for health, a holistic approach may include conventional medicine and various
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.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

alternative medicine

therapeutic practices based on understandings of the human organism, the disease process and its treatment, which are different to those held by Western scientific medicine. Conceptualizing alternative medicine thus always implies some under standing of the principle features of orthodox 'S cientific’ treatment. These are usually held to be:
  1. a mechanical/materialistic understanding of the body and of disease;
  2. a doctrine of ‘specific etiology’, i.e. that all disease is caused by specific material pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, defective genes, etc;
  3. a vigorous interventionist therapeutic stance using surgery or chemical drugs to correct, oppose or reverse the disease process;
  4. patient passivity and compliance with the regimen dictated by an expert profession.

Proceeding in this way towards a ‘negative’ definition of alternative medicine, however, has its dangers as it suggests a unity within both fields which is in fact absent. If regular medicine is materialistic, therapeutically aggressive, etc. (and it sometimes, but not always, is), then it is too easy to assume that all alternative approaches subscribe to opposite principles: viz: a holistic understanding of the body and disease, involving an indissoluble unity of mind and body; a 'S ympathetic’ therapeutic stance, aimed at enhancing the body's own healing processes; a cooperative relationship between therapist and patient; and an active role for the patient in regaining health. While some systems of alternative medicine do exhibit these features (for example, homeopathy), others (such as chiropractic) do not.

Sociological work on alternative medicine is a recent development, and has tended to focus on four main areas:

  1. rather than accepting therapeutic principles at ‘face value’, interest has been shown in the social processes underlying the negotiation of the legitimacy of therapeutic principles, and of medical knowledge in general (thus the regular/alternative boundary is not fixed only by epistemological criteria, but is also historically fluid, and contingent on issues of professional power);
  2. issues of organization and professionalization;
  3. the resurgence of popular (and regular medical) interest in alternative medicine (involving a complex of reasons, all related in some way to a recognition of the damaging effects of science and technology – it is no accident that interest in green politics and green medicine have emerged more or less together);
  4. the increasing interaction between regular and alternative practitioners, and the incorporation of alternative therapy into regular practice (processes which have led to the use of the term ‘complementary therapy’ rather than ‘alternative therapy’).
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
References in periodicals archive ?
A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June 2016 among doctors practicing alternative systems of medicine working in private hospitals/clinics in Tumkur, Southern India.
Green Alternative Systems is a trendsetter for fleet conversions and hold themselves to the highest standards in the industry.
Reliability must be sufficient to support the warfighting capability needed in its expected operating environment." Therefore, when applying this technique to Risk Assessment and AoA, it is important to consider any differences in capabilities and operating environment that exist between the proposed and alternative systems.
Alternative systems, competing across the board with government-operated schools, seem to have stimulated the latter to be more efficient (as measured by cost) and more effective (as measured by outcomes) than systems in countries where no such competition exists.
MPs urged the Government to carry out a full-scale review to find out the cost and benefits of alternative systems - such as abolishing all of the existing health charges, or the prescription charge and reviewing car parking fees as hospitals charged pounds 78m for the use of their car parks in 2004/05.
MPs urged the Government to carry out a full-scale review to find out the cost and benefits of alternative systems ( such as abolishing all existing health charges, or abolishing the prescription charge only.
MPs urged the government to carry out a full-scale review to find out the cost and benefits of alternative systems - such as abolishing all of existing health charges, or abolishing the prescription charge only.
MPs urged the Government to carry out a full scale review to find out the cost and benefits of alternative systems.
Through this procedure, various alternative systems are proposed.
Alternative systems which can make working at height even safer include pulpits, podiums, towers and "zip-ups", says the Health and Safety Executive.
This international conference will examine the latest regulatory and environmental pressures affecting existing stabiliser chemistry and detail the newest alternative systems for rigid and flexible PVC formulations.
There's no denying that even the all-important human may be excluded from the biometrically-based alternative systems that are starting to enter the market," said Akira Taguchi, president of Kai Corporation.

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