Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez

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Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez

(äl`vär no͞o`nyāth käbā`thä dā vä`kä), c.1490–c.1557, Spanish explorer. Cabeza de Vaca [cow's head] was not actually a surname but a hereditary title in his mother's family; he is frequently called simply Álvar Núñez.

North American Adventures

Cabeza de Vaca came to the New World as treasurer in the expedition of Pánfilo de NarváezNarváez, Pánfilo de
, c.1470–1528, Spanish conquistador. After service in Jamaica, he aided Diego de Velázquez in conquering Cuba and was sent (1520) to Mexico by Velázquez to force Cortés into submission.
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 that reached Florida (probably Tampa Bay) in 1528. When hardship and native hostility caused the end of the expedition, he was one of the survivors whose barges were shipwrecked on an island off the Texas coast, possibly Galveston or Mustang Island. Their story is one of the most remarkable in the annals of exploration.

After suffering considerably as slaves of the Native Americans inhabiting the island, Cabeza de Vaca and three other survivors escaped and started a long journey overland. His companions were Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes, and Estevanico. They gained great repute among the Native Americans as healers since remarkable cures were attributed to their Christian prayers. Their route westward is as disputed as is the identity the island of the shipwreck, but after much wandering they did reach W Texas, then probably New Mexico and Arizona, and possibly (some argue) California before, turning south in 1536, they arrived in Culiacán in Mexico and told their story to Spaniards there.

They were almost certainly the first Europeans to see bison, and their stories about the Pueblo gave rise to the legend of the Seven Cities of Cibola, later magnified by Fray Marcos de NizaMarcos de Niza
, c.1495–1558, missionary explorer in Spanish North America. A Franciscan friar, he served in Peru and Guatemala before going to Mexico. There he headed an expedition (1539) planned by Antonio de Mendoza, who had been excited by Cabeza de Vaca's stories of
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, and brought explorers in search of El Dorado. Cabeza de Vaca's own account, Los naufragios [the shipwrecked men] (1542), is the chief document of the startling adventures of his party. An English translation (1851) by Thomas Buckingham Smith is reprinted in I. R. Blacker and H. M. Rosen's The Golden Conquistadores (1960).

South American Career

After returning to Spain, Cabeza de Vaca was appointed governor of the Río de la Plata region and reached Asunción after an overland journey from the Brazilian coast in 1542. His South American career was sadly different from that in North America. He got into trouble with the popular Domingo Martínez de IralaIrala, Domingo Martínez de
, d. 1556 or 1557, first governor of Paraguay. Of Basque origin, he accompanied Pedro de Mendoza on his expedition to La Plata in 1535.
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, and after he returned from a journey up the Paraná River to Bolivia, he was arrested, accused of high-handed practices, imprisoned for two years, and sent back to Spain. There he was found guilty but was pardoned by the king. Cabeza de Vaca wrote his own account of the South American events in his Comentarios (1555).

Bibliography

See M. Bishop, The Odyssey of Cabeza de Vaca (1933); J. U. Terrell, Journey into Darkness (1962); H. Long, The Marvelous Adventures of Cabeza de Vaca (1973).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez

 

Born in 1490; died in 1564 (according to some sources, 1507-59). Spanish conquistador.

In 1528, Cabeza de Vaca sailed from western Florida to Texas on one of the ships of P. Narvâez’ military expedition. He was shipwrecked off the coast of Texas. From 1529 to 1536, in wandering from one Indian tribe to another, he was the first to cross the Great Plains and the Rio Grande basin, finally reaching Mexico. In 1541-42, after being appointed governor of the province of Rio de la Plata, he landed on the coast of Brazil at 27°S lat. and crossed the southern part of the Brazilian plateau. He discovered the Iguaçu River, a left tributary of the Parana, and traveled to its mouth. From there he marched west to the Paraguay River, sailing as far as 18°S lat. in search of silver. In 1544, Cabeza de Vaca was arrrested by a rival and deported to Spain in 1545. He described his travels in Tales of Failures (1555).

REFERENCES

Magidovich, I. P. Istoriia otkrytiia i issledovaniia Severnoi Ameriki. Moscow, 1962.
Magidovich, I. P. Istoriia otkrytiia i issledovaniia Tsentraiinoi i IuzhnoiAmeriki. Moscow, 1965.

I. P. MAGIDOVICH

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the novel's mise-en-scene, an elderly, transculturated Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, having survived the shipwreck of the Panfilo de Narvaez expedition to La Florida in 1527, eight years living among Native Americans, and an unsuccessful stint as governor of Rio de la Plata, is now retired and living in Seville when he comes upon an official map of the Florida region newly placed in the library of the Torre de Fadrique.
Testimonio del interprete Juan Perez en la pieza 12 del proceso de Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca. Asuncion siglo XVI.
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (c.1488-c.1559) was the treasurer of the early sixteenth-century expedition led by Panfilo de Narvaez to Florida and southeastern North America.
Fuera del que perpetran los oficiales que entran en la casa de Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca y desarman las arcas cerradas con tres llaves apoderandose de "todas las escripturas que en ellas estaban" (32) y de los procesos que se habian hecho en su contra, el saqueo textual tiene como protagonistas a todos los grandes criticos que forman parte de esta historia.
Critique: A masterpiece of biographical and historical scholarship, "Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca: American Trailblazer" is a seminal contribution to the growing library of North American History in general, and the early Spanish explorations in particular.
Early Visions and Representations of America: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca's Naufragios and William Bradford's Of Plymouth Plantation.
Camilo Jose Cela, Spain) compares the perceptions and preconceptions of the Americas displayed in Naugragios, by 16th-century Spanish conquistador Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, and Of Plymouth Plantation, by the 17th-century Pilgrim leader William Bradford.
Aunque podemos buscar antecedentes remotos de la existencia de esa realidad historica--recordemos los que algunos estudiosos han hecho con Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (1500-1560) a quien se ha intentado convertir en el primer chicano y hasta, mas tarde, en el primer latinoestadounidense, para asi darle un sentido historico a este campo de estudios--esta disciplina, como materia academica, verdaderamente aparece en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, especialmente tras la fundacion de departamentos o centro de estudios de los distintos grupos etnicos de raices latinoamericanas, especialmente los de estudios chicanos y puertorriquenos.
As a result of this critical neglect, Spanish conquistadors such as Gaspar Perez de Villagra or Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, to name but two, have not enjoyed the historical credibility paid to contemporary English explorers such as Captain John Smith or Thomas Harriot.