Only a few animal species can survive such conditions, as is well documented in studies of two vent-dwelling alvinellid worms, Alvinella pompejana
and Paralvinella sulfinicola (Girguis and Lee, 2006; Marie et al., 2006; Le Bris and Gaill, 2007; Dilly et al., 2012; Genard et al., 2013; Ravaux et al., 2013).
The "Pompeii worm" (Alvinella pompejana
) is a furry worm with red tentacles that can withstand the hottest temperatures of any animal, even short periods at 130[degrees]F (55[degrees]C).
Fujiwara et al., "Characterization of a Y-family DNA polymerase eta from the eukaryotic thermophile Alvinella pompejana
," Journal of Nucleic Acids, vol.
The Equator coincides with a significant dispersal barrier for the vent palm worm Alvinella pompejana
(Desbruyeres & Laubier 1980, Hurtado et al.
Craig Cary of the University of Delaware in Lewes hovered in a submersible and inserted probes inside the tubes of a different Pacific-vent worm, Alvinella pompejana
. He recorded temperatures rapidly fluctuating between 40[degrees] and 90[degrees]C.
Phylogenetic characterization of the epibiotic bacteria associated with the hydrothermal vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana
In particular, [epsilon]-Proteobacteria were found to largely dominate the microbial communities associated with the vent polychaeate Alvinella pompejana
and tubeworm Riftia pachyptila on the EPR at both 9[degrees] and 13[degrees] North (Cary et al.
The tube worm species Alvinella pompejana
live around vent systems all along the East Pacific Rise, an undersea geological formation that stretches for thousands of miles.
The discovery of 350 [degrees] C+ hydrothermal fluid pouring from "black smoker" chimneys in 1979 added a new dimension to hydrothermal vent biology: a tremendous diversity of microorganisms including Archaea growing above 100 [degrees] C, and Alvinella pompejana
worms living at temperatures up to 50 [degrees] C.
The vestimen-tiferan tubeworm Riftia pachyptila (Marsh et at., 2001) and the alvinellid polychaete Alvinella pompejana
(Pradillon et al, 2001, 2005), both from the East Pacific Rise, have been cultured using pressurization techniques.
Growth and phylogenetic properties of novel bacteria belonging to the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria enriched from Alvinella pompejana
and deep-sea hydrothermal vents.
No blocks were placed in the higher temperature habitats that support alvinellids (Alvinella pompejana