The other is lateral interaction pathway, comprising local feedback circuits from horizontal cells back to photoreceptors and from amacrine cells
back to bipolar cells.
Activation of polyaxonal wide-field amacrine cells
(ACs) by global jitter motion suppresses firing of specific GCs, such as the local motion detector (fast OFF GC in salamander, ON brisk transient GC, and ON-OFF direction selective GC in rabbit; (19) W3B GC in mouse (20)).
Assessing the function of the whole retina may be obtained with EOG (rod and RPE responses) and ERG (photoreceptors, bipolar cells, amacrine cells
, ganglion cells).
They note: "Deletion of GSK3ss resulted in ss-catenin stabilization and MG proliferation without retinal injury," and that, "Intriguingly, after gene transfer of ss-catenin or Lin28, a subset of cell-cycle-reactivated MGs express markers for amacrine cells
, a type of retinal interneurons.
Vulnerability of dopaminergic amacrine cells
and optic nerve myelination to prenatal endotoxin exposure.
Close relationships have been observed between 5-HT and GABA in vertebrates, such as the rabbit (Osborne & Beaton 1986) and the cat (Wassle & Chun 1988), with double-labeling studies demonstrating the coexistence of these 2 neurotransmitters in amacrine cells
of the retina.
Cambridge, MA ChAT Amacrine cells
Rabbit Ab143; Chemicon, 1:100 Temecula, CA Chx10 BCs Sheep x1180P; Exalpha 1:50 Biologicals Inc.
However, all those studies had failed to detect any regenerated inner retina nerve cells, except when the Muller glia cells were genetically modified with genes that specifically promote the formation of amacrine cells
, which act as intermediaries in transmitting nerve signals.
In the normal retina (Figure 6(a)), anti-GABA antibody labels the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the amacrine cells
located on the inner lamina of the INL, and the horizontal cells located on the outer lamina of the INL.
Differential properties of two gap junctional pathways made by All amacrine cells
Dopamine is produced by a subset of amacrine cells
in the retina and generally functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Instead of the the eye's bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells
, which process the information gathered by the rods and cones, the electronic retina has "signal transfer gates, memories, logic gates and driver circuits,' each on its own silicon layer.