Amanita

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Amanita

(ăm'ənī`tə): see mushroommushroom,
type of basidium fungus characterized by spore-bearing gills on the underside of the umbrella- or cone-shaped cap. The name toadstool is popularly reserved for inedible or poisonous mushrooms, but this classification has no scientific basis.
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Amanita

 

a genus of hymenomycetous gill fungi of the order Agaricales. The fruiting body in young Amanita is enclosed in the universal veil, which ruptures and remains in the form of a membrane or scales at the base of the stipe or in the form of white flakes on the surface of the cap. Most species of Amanita also have a partial veil in the form of an annulus on the stipe.

Many Amanita are poisonous, particularly the death cup (Amanita phalloides). Fly agaric (A. muscaria), which has a typically bright cap, is slightly poisonous. The toxicity of death cup is caused by the presence of thermostable toxins—phalloi-dine, α-amanitine, and β-amanitine—which poison animals and humans, often resulting in death. Fly agaric contains the toxic alkaloids muscarine and fungal atropine. There are some edible species of Amanita, such as A. vaginata and blusher (A. rubescens), which has a dirtypink cap. In the USSR, species of Amanita usually grow in forests from June through October.

References in periodicals archive ?
Descubrimientos recientes han revelado vestigios de la importancia magico-religiosa y sobrenatural que la Amanita habia conservado para las culturas norteamericanas.
Hay datos indiscutibles del uso de esta planta como enteogeno (es decir, como excitadora de las manifestaciones internas "divinas"), entre los indios dogridb athabascan, que viven en las montanas Mackenzie, al noroeste de Canada; quienes todavia utilizan Amanita muscaria como sacramento en sus practicas chamanicas.
La Amanita muscaria abunda en Norte America, pero es escasa en las tierras situadas mas al sur por lo que en estas zonas son consumidas otras especies; esto es, hongos visionarios distintos, como los del genero psilocybe.
Tambien se ha planteado que puede ser factible que Amanita muscaria se haya empleado con fines enteogenicos en zonas de Mesoamerica; ya que existen datos que esta especie de hongos crece en las zonas altas del sur de Mexico y Guatemala.
El sombrero del Soma o Amanita muscaria mide de l0 a 25cm de diametro, es grande extendido de borde curveado con laminillas acanaladas.
La Amanita muscaria pertenece al grupo de setas llamados "basiodiomicentos", crece en suelos acidos, asociada a raices de distintos arboles: al pino, al cedro, al alerce, pero especialmente con los abedules forma una simbiosis micorizogena; intercambia a traves de las raices del arbol, sales minerales y agua, por sustancias organicas que no se encuentran en la hojarasca del suelo.
The echopictures experienced by Waser under the influence of muscimol have also been described by others after having ingested Amanita muscaria mushrooms, supporting the idea that muscimol is the primary inebriating agent.
Discovered in 1869, muscarine was the first compound isolated from the Amanita muscaria mushroom, from which the compound derives its name.
Wasson's theory is that the filter of sunlight represents drying or dehydration of the Soma plant, a process that is essential in the preparation of Amanita muscaria in Siberia.
The frst assumption is that Amanita muscaria shares similar chemical properties with Psilocybe mushrooms, which allow it to be eaten fresh or dried without preparation.
While Wasson was unable to explain the significance of the second filter as applied to Amanita muscaria, this study seeks to illustrate how this step may provide further support for his theory.
While ibotenic acid, one of the mushrooms active constituents, passes in the urine unmetabolized, it is likely that other components of Amanita muscaria that contribute to nausea and vomiting, such as muscarine, have been metabolized (filtered) into inactive by-products.