Amanita

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Amanita

(ăm'ənī`tə): see mushroommushroom,
type of basidium fungus characterized by spore-bearing gills on the underside of the umbrella- or cone-shaped cap. The name toadstool is popularly reserved for inedible or poisonous mushrooms, but this classification has no scientific basis.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Amanita

 

a genus of hymenomycetous gill fungi of the order Agaricales. The fruiting body in young Amanita is enclosed in the universal veil, which ruptures and remains in the form of a membrane or scales at the base of the stipe or in the form of white flakes on the surface of the cap. Most species of Amanita also have a partial veil in the form of an annulus on the stipe.

Many Amanita are poisonous, particularly the death cup (Amanita phalloides). Fly agaric (A. muscaria), which has a typically bright cap, is slightly poisonous. The toxicity of death cup is caused by the presence of thermostable toxins—phalloi-dine, α-amanitine, and β-amanitine—which poison animals and humans, often resulting in death. Fly agaric contains the toxic alkaloids muscarine and fungal atropine. There are some edible species of Amanita, such as A. vaginata and blusher (A. rubescens), which has a dirtypink cap. In the USSR, species of Amanita usually grow in forests from June through October.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Muscimol is five to 10 times more potent than ibotenic acid, and is likely the primary contributor to the psychoactive effects of Amanita muscaria intoxication.
The echopictures experienced by Waser under the influence of muscimol have also been described by others after having ingested Amanita muscaria mushrooms, supporting the idea that muscimol is the primary inebriating agent.
Discovered in 1869, muscarine was the first compound isolated from the Amanita muscaria mushroom, from which the compound derives its name.
Wasson's theory is that the filter of sunlight represents drying or dehydration of the Soma plant, a process that is essential in the preparation of Amanita muscaria in Siberia.
The frst assumption is that Amanita muscaria shares similar chemical properties with Psilocybe mushrooms, which allow it to be eaten fresh or dried without preparation.