amatoxin

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amatoxin

[¦am·ə¦täk·sən]
(biochemistry)
Any of a group of toxic peptides that selectively inhibit ribonucleic acid polymerase in mammalian cells; produced by the mushroom Amanita phalloides.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Creative Biolabs provides transcription toxins such as amatoxins (targeting RNA polymerase II) and thailanstatin A (targeting spliceosome) as ADC payloads.
Amatoxins, consisting of alpha, beta, and gamma amanitin, account for >90% of deaths related to mushroom poisoning worldwide (1).
Amatoxins, the principal toxic alkaloids found in these fungi, cause cell injury by halting protein synthesis.
Administration of cimetidine, a cytochrome P-450 inhibitor which inhibits the uptake of amatoxins by the mixed function oxidase system, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor that binds amatoxin-related free radicals, have also been used in the treatment of amanitin intoxication.
phalloides produces 2 types of toxins: phallotoxins and amatoxin. The phallotoxins are not absorbed from the gut and are believed to be responsible for the nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Amatoxins, which constitute the second group of Amanita toxins, are cyclic octapeptides that interfere with DNA transcription (3).
The principal toxins (amatoxins) are taken up by hepatocytes and interfere with messenger RNA synthesis, suppressing protein synthesis and resulting in severe acute hepatitis and possible liver failure.
tigrinus slightly more toxic than Cortinarius speciosissimus and Cortinarius orellanus with L[D.sub.50] values of 2.0 g/kg and 3.2 g/kg, respectively [8] but less toxic compared to the 10 mg lethal dose of Amanita phalloides amatoxin reported by Patowary [9].