Amatoxins, consisting of alpha, beta, and gamma amanitin, account for >90% of deaths related to mushroom poisoning worldwide (1).
Amatoxins, the principal toxic alkaloids found in these fungi, cause cell injury by halting protein synthesis.
Rapid induction of death after LTE injection are similar to the lethal effects of wild mushroom Amanita phalloides amatoxins
and lyophilized extract of Panaeolus subalteatus and Macrolepiotaprocera injected intraperitoneally at dose rate 1,000 mg/kg [2,12].
Amatoxins are thermostable (cooking, drying, and freezing do not alter their toxicity) and dialyzable.
Administration of cimetidine, a cytochrome P-450 inhibitor which inhibits the uptake of amatoxins by the mixed function oxidase system, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor that binds amatoxin-related free radicals, have also been used in the treatment of amanitin intoxication.
Amatoxins, which constitute the second group of Amanita toxins, are cyclic octapeptides that interfere with DNA transcription (3).
3 mg/kg (8), and phallotoxins seem to exacerbate the action of amatoxins.
Radioimmunoassay of amatoxins
can be obtained from serum and urine; the tests are performed at referral laboratories (1,2).
Treatment of Amatoxin
Poisoning: 20-Year Retrospective Analysis.