American Colonization Society

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American Colonization Society,

organized Dec., 1816–Jan., 1817, at Washington, D.C., to transport free blacks from the United States and settle them in Africa. The freeing of many slaves, principally by idealists, created a serious problem in that no sound provisions were made for establishing them in society on an equal basis with white Americans anywhere in the United States. Robert FinleyFinley, Robert
, 1772–1817, American clergyman, a founder of the American Colonization Society, b. Princeton, N.J. In 1787 he graduated from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), where he later studied theology.
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, principal founder of the colonization society, found much support among prominent men, notably Henry ClayClay, Henry,
1777–1852, American statesman, b. Hanover co., Va. Early Career

His father died when he was four years old, and Clay's formal schooling was limited to three years.
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. Money was raised—with some indirect help from the federal government when (1819) Congress appropriated $100,000 for returning to Africa blacks illegally brought to the United States. In 1821 an agent, Eli Ayres, and Lt. R. F. Stockton of the U.S. Navy purchased land in Africa, where subsequently Jehudi AshmunAshmun, Jehudi,
1794–1828, U.S. agent to Liberia, b. Champlain, N.Y. After entering the Congregationalist ministry and spending a few years in teaching and editorial work, he was sent by the American Colonization Society to Liberia.
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 and Ralph R. Gurley laid the foundations of LiberiaLiberia
[New Lat.,=place of freedom], officially Republic of Liberia, republic (2015 est. pop. 4,500,000), 43,000 sq mi (111,370 sq km), W Africa. Liberia fronts on the Atlantic Ocean for some 350 mi (560 km) on the southwest and is bordered on the northwest by Sierra Leone, on
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. The colonization movement came under the bitter attack of the abolitionists, who charged that in the South it strengthened slavery by removing the free blacks. The blacks themselves were not enthusiastic about abandoning their native land for the African coast. The colonization society, with its associated state organizations, declined after 1840. More than 11,000 blacks were transported to Liberia before 1860. From 1865 until its dissolution in 1912, the society was a sort of trustee for Liberia.


See P. J. Staudenraus, The African Colonization Movement (1961); W. L. Garrison, Thoughts on African Colonization (1832, repr. 1968).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The American Colonization Society archives included photographs and postcards (now housed in the Prints and Photographs Division); correspondence, internal reports, and other official documents (in the Manuscript Division); and maps (in the Geography and Map Division).
Scholar Dean Robinson has observed how, "Black Nationalists criticized the American Colonization Society, but offered an identical solution--resettlement--to the problem of black inequality." (8) Indeed, convention meetings of black residents of New York and Chicago seconded their adverse sentiments and passed respective resolutions to "...
(16.) Early Lee Fox, The American Colonization Society, 1817-1840 (Lancaster, Pa.: Johns Hopkins Univ.
In his extended critique of the American Colonization Society (ACS), Thoughts on African Colonization (1832), Garrison denounces the ACS's methods, identifying its black participants as "forced to turn volunteers" (17).
Bur Washington had no such interest, so the few thousand surviving freed slaves in their separate communities took the brave decision to unite, sever official links with the American Colonization Society and go it alone as a sovereign nation to be known as Liberia, 'Land of the Free'.
Eric Burin, Slavery and the Peculiar Solution: A History of the American Colonization Society (Gainesville: Univ.
Which African country was founded by the American Colonization Society? 7.
It was founded as a colony by the American Colonization Society in 1821-22.Liberia was created as a place for slaves freed in the United States to emigrate to in Africa, on the premise they would have greater freedom and equality there.
There, the author discusses JBR's support for the American Colonization Society (ACS), an organization most blacks condemned as a "hydra-headed monster of prejudice and hatred" (p.31).
In Africa, the white representative of the American Colonization Society held a gun to the head of a tribal king and aggrandized for its new immigrants all 130 square miles of what became Liberia.
Lafayette's first Black graduate, McDonogh, was sent to the college by his owner, a Louisiana rice planter who was a supporter of the American Colonization Society's plan to send freed slaves to Liberia.
The American Colonization Society (ACS), which proposed the unrealistic scheme of purchasing slaves and shipping them to Africa, argued that bondage in America had been part of God's plan.

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