cartoon

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cartoon

cartoon [Ital., cartone=paper], either of two types of drawings: in the fine arts, a preliminary sketch for a more complete work; in journalism, a humorous or satirical drawing.

Cartoons in the Fine Arts

In the fine arts, the cartoon is a full-sized preliminary drawing for a work to be executed afterward in fresco, oil, mosaic, stained glass, or tapestry. Glass and mosaic are cut exactly according to the patterns taken from the cartoons, while in tapestry the cartoon is inserted beneath the warp to serve as a guide. In fresco painting, the lines of the cartoon are perforated and transferred to the plaster surface by pouncing (dusting with powder through the perforations). Italian Renaissance painters made very complete cartoons, and such works as Raphael's cartoons for the Sistine Chapel tapestries (Victoria and Albert Mus.) are considered masterpieces.

Cartoons in Journalism

In England in 1843 a series of drawings appeared in Punch magazine that parodied the fresco cartoons submitted in a competition for the decoration of the new Houses of Parliament. In this way cartoon, in journalistic parlance, came to mean any single humorous or satirical drawing employing distortion for emphasis, often accompanied by a caption or a legend. Cartoons, particularly editorial or political cartoons, make use of the elements of caricature.

Political Cartoons

The political cartoon first appeared in 16th-century Germany during the Reformation, the first time such art became an active propaganda weapon with social implications. While many of these cartoons were crudely executed and remarkably vulgar, some, such as Holbein's German Hercules, were excellent drawings produced by the best artists of the time. In 18th-century England the cartoon became an integral and effective part of journalism through the works of Hogarth, Rowlandson, and Gillray, who often used caricature. Daumier, in France, became well known for his virulent satirical cartoons.

By the mid-19th cent. editorial cartoons had become regular features in American newspapers, and were soon followed by sports cartoons and humorous cartoons. The effect of political cartoons on public opinion was amply demonstrated in the elections of 1871 and 1873, when the power of Tammany Hall was broken and Boss Tweed imprisoned largely through the efforts of Thomas Nast and his cartoons for Harper's Weekly. In 1922 the first Pulitzer Prize for editorial cartooning was won by Rollin Kirby of the New York World. Other noted political cartoonists include John T. McCutcheon, C. D. Batchelor, Jacob Burck, Bill Mauldin, Rube Goldberg, Tom Little, Patrick Oliphant, and Herblock (Herbert Block).

Humorous Cartoons

Humorous nonpolitical cartoons became popular with the development of the color press, and in 1893 the first color cartoon appeared in the New York World. In 1896 R. F. Outcault originated The Yellow Kid, a large single-panel cartoon with some use of dialogue in balloons, and throughout the 90s humorous cartoons by such artists as T. S. Sullivant, James Swinnerton, Frederick B. Opper, and Edward W. Kemble began to appear regularly in major newspapers and journals. The New Yorker and Saturday Evening Post were among the most notable American magazines to use outstanding single cartoon drawings.

Single cartoons soon developed into the narrative newspaper comic strip, but the single panel episodic tradition also survived and thrived. It is exemplified by the work of humorists such as Charles Addams, Peter Arno, Saul Steinberg, James Thurber, William Steig, Helen Hokinson, Mary Petty, Whitney Darrow, George Price, Edward Koren, Roz Chast, the Englishmen Rowland Emmett and Ronald Searle, and the French cartoonists André François and Bil.

Bibliography

See studies by D. Low (1953), O. Lancaster (1964); R. E. Shikes, The Indignant Eye (1969); J. Geipel (1972); M. Horn, ed., The World Encyclopedia of Cartoons (1980); A. Wood, Great Cartoonists and Their Art (1987); V. S. Navasky, The Art of Controversy: Political Cartoons and Their Enduring Power (2013).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

cartoon

A drawing or painting made as a detailed model of an architectural embellishment, often full-scale, to be transferred in preparation for a fresco, mosaic or tapestry.
See also: Design drawing
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cartoon

 

in art, a large preliminary drawing (not alwaysblack and white) with the dimensions of a projected work of art, such as a fresco, mosaic, stained glass, or Gobelin tapestry. Bypiercing the outlines of the cartoon, the composition of a pro-jected fresco was transferred onto the wall. European artists usedcartoons extensively during the Renaissance and during the 17thand 18th centuries.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cartoon

[kär′tün]
(graphic arts)
Animated drawings in a motion picture format.
A drawing on paper that is used as a model for a final work.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cartoon

A drawing or painting made as a detailed model, often full-scale, of an architectural embellishment.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cartoon

2. a full-size preparatory sketch for a fresco, tapestry, mosaic, etc., from which the final work is traced or copied
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Cartoon

(dreams)
Seeing a cartoon world in your dreams or seeing cartoonlike people suggests that your unconscious is sending up messages which are telling you something about the way you perceive the world. The cartoon people, or cartoon characters, suggest that you may perceive yourself and those around you as comical or as not having much validity or seriousness. Your perceptions may be somewhat off due to your inability to look at the way things really are. Your mind’s eye distorts things so that you are more comfortable with what is going on around you. If your world is full of stress and this dream made you laugh, consider the compensatory nature of it. In your dream you may be able to obtain moments of lightheartedness and fun.
Bedside Dream Dictionary by Silvana Amar Copyright © 2007 by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
"The kids don't ask for big gifts as they don't see a lot of the American cartoon television which is packed with those manipulative commercials.
"And the kids don't ask for the big gifts for the reason that they don't see a lot of the American cartoon television, which is packed with all those manipulative commercials for big toys that look so fantastic.
"And the kids don't ask for big gifts for the reason that they don't see a lot of American cartoon TV, which is packed with manipulative ads.
The show was based on the American cartoon strip Little Orphan Annie, a girl confined to an orphanage with a dastardly matron, who is then invited to spend Christmas at the house of a millionaire businessman.
"And it's nice to be known as the brains of the team." Created in 1969 by American cartoon maestros Hanna Barbera, Scooby Doo has proved so popular that it has been turned into two recent Warner Brothers films starring Sarah Michelle Gellar and Freddie Prinze Jr.
American cartoon series The Simpsons has been named the best children's show of all time by British television viewers.
IN a mixture of animation and live action, the Nazi-like villains from the antique American cartoon series come to life and attempt to take over the world, reducing the masses to zombies by bombarding us with really bad television.
Mr Stott's home in Castle Park, Merthyr, is a shrine to the American cartoon family, with rooms packed full of Simpsons merchandise including everything from cufflinks to life size models to a Simpsons doughnut maker.
His home in Castle Park, Merthyr, is already a shrine to the American cartoon family, including everything from cufflinks to life-size models to a Simpsons doughnut maker.
He said: "The kids don't ask for big gifts for the simple reason that they don't see a lot of American cartoon television, which is packed with all those manipulative commercials for big toys that look so fantastic.
Somewhat more daringly, 21% of children opted for the more-subversive American cartoon character Bart Simpson as their walk-to-school companion.

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