This database contains in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data on 726 substances that induce gene mutations in the Ames test
. It was initially constructed to evaluate the predictivity of the Ames test--alone or in combination with in vitro mammalian cell assays--for in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity (Kirkland et al., 2014).
From the results presented in Figures 11 and 12, it can be concluded that, for the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity rule base as well as the rule base for Ames test
, no structural alerts are identified either for bisoprolol API or for Impurity RRT 0.95.
Although the predictive results using the in silico approach indicated the absence of mutagenicity in Ames test
, we performed the bacterial reversion assay (Ames test
) using Salmonella strains and observed a mutagenic response for Infertile (Figure 2).
The core principal of the Ames test
is the use of amino acid-dependent strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli.
The objective of this study was to examine the features of the mushrooms by light microscope and to evaluate the toxicity of two selected wild mushrooms by Ames test
in the presence and absence of metabolic activation by using TA98 and TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium bacterial strains.
Table III.- The result of Ames Test
on test sample (number of reverse mutated-colonies/Plate xsd n=6)
As the Ames tests
were unequivocally negative (EMEA, 2008), on the basis of the HMPC nonclinical guideline no further genotoxicity testing of valerian root preparations is required (EMEA, 2006b).
Regarding the Ames test
, the results from the promutagen treatment were similar to those reported by Zhang et al.
Antimutagenesis assays were performed using the Ames test
as described by Maron and Ames .
The mutagenic activity of water extracts and MX were determined by means of the Ames test
(Maron & Ames, 1983), using two strains (TA98 and TA100) of Salmonella typhimurium, with metabolic activity (with mixture S9, made from a fraction of rat liver homogenate) and without metabolic activity (without mixture S9) to detect indirect mutagenic activity.
Because no single test can predict the potential genotoxicity of a compound, we aimed to shed light on this issue using two bacterial standard assays: SOS-Inductest (prophage [lambda] induction) and Ames test