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(both: twä`rĕg), BerbersBerbers,
aboriginal Caucasoid peoples of N Africa, called Imazighen in the Tamazight language. They inhabit the lands lying between the Sahara and the Mediterranean Sea and between Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean.
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 of the Sahara, numbering c.2 million. They have preserved their ancient alphabet, which is related to that used by ancient Libyans. The Tuaregs traditionally maintained a feudal system consisting of a small number of noble families, a large majority of vassals, and a lower class of black non-Tuareg serfs, who performed the agricultural tasks. The upper classes, organized in tribes, convoyed caravans and, until subdued by France, were feared as raiders. The fiercely independent Tuareg resented European hegemony in Africa, and they long resisted conquest.

Tuareg men go veiled, while the women are unveiled. Women enjoy respect and freedom, and descent and inheritance are through the female line. Though nominally Muslim, the people still retain many pre-Islamic rites and customs, but the traditional way of life for the Tuaregs (e.g., raiding neighboring tribes, leading caravans, and exacting taxes from trans-Sahara travelers) has changed. Since the 1970s droughts and famines have forced many Tuaregs from their desert homes into urban areas; many have become farmers.

In the 1990s political tensions caused further relocation. Groups of Tuaregs fought for autonomy from Niger and Mali, but cease-fires were signed in both nations in the mid-1990s and largely held in the following decade. Beginning in 2006, however, there were Tuareg attacks against government forces in Mali despite cease-fires in subequent years; in early 2009 Mali's military gained significant victories against the rebels. The collapse of the Qaddafi regime in Libya (2011) revived Mali's Tuareg rebels when Tuaregs who had fought in Qaddafi's army returned to Mali. Following the 2012 coup in Mali, Tuareg and Islamist rebels seized control of much of N Mali, but Islamists subsequently marginalized non-Islamist Tuaregs, and then French-led forces reestablished (2013) government control over most of the region. A peace agreement with the main Tuareg rebel alliance was signed in 2015, but there has been fighting between pro- and antigovernment Tuareg groups since then. In 2007 a new Tuareg rebel group began mounting attacks in Niger, claiming that the government had failed to honor promises made in the 1995 peace accord. In 2009 negotiations with two of the three Tuareg rebel groups in Niger led to a cease-fire.


See F. J. Rennell, People of the Veil (1926, repr. 1966); P. Fuchs, The Land of Veiled Men (tr. 1956).



(self-designation, Imochag), a people living in Niger, Mali, Upper Volta, and the desert regions of Algeria. They originally inhabited the more northerly regions of Africa, but were forced into their present regions by the Arab conquests. They number about 1 million (1973, estimate).

The Tuareg speak a Berber language, and they are Sunni Muslims. Their main occupation is hoe farming of cereals, legumes, and vegetables, combined with the raising of sheep and goats. A small group of Tuareg living in the Algerian Sahara are nomadic herders of camels and goats. The Tuareg have retained their tribal divisions and significant elements of a patriarchal feudal system, with some traits of matrilinearity; the largest tribal groups are the Aulliminden, Ifora, Kel Geres, Kel Ahaggar, and Kel Air.


Narody Afriki. Moscow, 1954.
Murdock, G. P. Africa: Its Peoples and Their Culture History. New York-Toronto-London, 1959.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cette edition, comme ses precedentes, vivra un riche programme de manifestations spirituelles, culturelles, musicales et des exhibitions de chasse au faucon animees par les Chorfas de Lkouassem qui tiennent a feter, a leur maniere, le marabout Moulay Abdellah Amghar.
Le moussem de Moulay Abdellah Amghar, celebre par les tribus des Doukkala a la memoire du saint [beaucoup moins que]Moulay Abdellah Amghar[beaucoup plus grand que], est considere comme etant l'une des manifestations religieuses et culturelles les plus attrayantes et les plus riches du Royaume.
Mais c'est, surtout, a partir du regne de son petit-fils, le grand savant et mystique Abou Abdallah Amghar dont ce Moussem estival porte le nom, que le Ribat de Tit s'imposa progressivement en tant que capitale provinciale au role economique et politique atteste.
On rapporte que l'origine de cette appellation revient a l'existence d'une source oE le cheikh Ismail Ibn SaEd, surnomme Ibn Amghar, fut le premier des Amghareneens a y faire ses ablutions et a y boire de l'eau.
Ce fut donc le commencement de la famille Amghareenne avec a sa tete, le cheikh Ismail Ibn Amghar, et ce avant l'avenement des Morabitines (au debut du 5eme siecle de l'Hegire).
Il s'agit notamment de l'Hippodrome Lalla Malika et du Haras National, sans oublier le plus grand Moussem du Royaume Moulay Abdellah Amghar qui a accueilli, cette annee, 1803 cavaliers et 111 sorba.
Le rideau est tombe, officiellement jeudi 23 aout, sur le moussem religieux et culturel de Moulay Abdellah Amghar en apotheose.
Sous le Haut patronage de Sa Majeste le Roi Mohamed VI, la commune de Moulay Abdellah organise du 16 au 23 aout, en collaboration avec la province d'El Jadida, l'Association provinciale des Affaires culturelles et le conseil provincial l'edition 2013 du moussem Moulay Abdellah Ait Amghar.
On rapporte que l'origine de cette appellation revient a l'existence d'une source oE le cheikh Ismail Ibn Said, surnomme Ibn Amghar, fut le premier des Amghareneens a y faire ses ablutions et a y boire de l'eau.
Les flux d'arrivees atteignent leur point culminant au mois d'aout, periode des conges par excellence, de la tenue du celebrissime moussem de Moulay Abdellah Ait Amghar qui regroupe, a lui seul durant toute une semaine, pres de 20.