Protectorate

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Protectorate

, in English history
Protectorate, in English history, name given to the English government from 1653 to 1659. Following the English civil war and the execution of Charles I, England was declared (1649) a commonwealth under the rule of the Rump Parliament. In 1653, however, Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump, replacing it with the Nominated, or Barebone's, Parliament (see Barebone, Praise-God), and when the latter proved ineffectual, he accepted (Dec., 1653) the constitutional document entitled the Instrument of Government, which had been drawn up by a group of army officers. By its terms, Cromwell assumed the title lord protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland and agreed to share his power with a council of state and a Parliament of one house. However, although Parliament met regularly, Cromwell's protectorate was a virtual dictatorship resting on the power of the army. After a royalist uprising, he divided (1655) the country into 11 military districts, each under the administration of a major general who enforced the rigidly puritanical laws and collected taxes. Toleration was extended to Jews and all non-Anglican Protestants, but not to Roman Catholics. In 1654, the first of the Dutch Wars was brought to a close and English sea power turned against Spain. In the Humble Petition and Advice of 1657, Parliament offered Cromwell the throne (which he refused), allowed him to name a successor, and set up an upper house to be chosen by him; but this attempt at constitutional revision had little practical effect on the government. Richard Cromwell succeeded as lord protector on the death of his father in 1658, but he was unable to control the army and resigned in May, 1659. The Rump was recalled and the Commonwealth resumed, and after a period of chaos Gen. George Monck recalled the Long Parliament and brought about the Restoration of Charles II.

Bibliography

See S. R. Gardiner, History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate (4 vol., 1903, repr. 1965); C. Firth, The Last Years of the Protectorate (2 vol., 1909; repr. 1964); I. Roots, Commonwealth and Protectorate: The English Civil War and Its Aftermath (1966).


protectorate

, in international law
protectorate, in international law, a relationship in which one state surrenders part of its sovereignty to another. The subordinate state is called a protectorate. The term covers a great variety of relations, but typically the protected state gives up all or part of its control over foreign affairs while retaining a large measure of independence in internal matters. The relation may originate when the dominant power threatens or uses force or when the subordinate sees advantages (usually military protection) in the arrangement. A protectorate is distinguishable from the relation of home country and colony, for the protected state retains its sovereignty (though often only nominally), its territory remains distinct from that of the protector, and its citizens do not become nationals of the protecting state. Initially, in most cases, the extent to which the dominant state may interfere in local affairs is governed by treaty; but since a protected state usually has no access to diplomatic channels, it is in a poor position to resist attempts at increased control. Protectorates in connection with large empires probably have existed from earliest times, and there are known instances in Greek and Roman history. In World War I, Great Britain made Egypt a protectorate. Before the abrogation (1934) of the Platt Amendment, Cuba was essentially a protectorate of the United States. Today no state formally has the status of a protectorate, but several quasi-protectorates do exist, including the Cook Islands, the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and Niue. The former trust territories of the United Nations (see trusteeship, territorial) were distinguished from protectorates in that they were being prepared for ultimate independence and that the control of the dominant state was subject to scrutiny by the UN Trusteeship Council.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Protectorate

 

a form of colonial dependency in which by a special international agreement one state turns over the conduct of its foreign relations to another state. At the same time the protected state receives an adviser or resident on domestic affairs, retaining only a certain amount of autonomy.

In the history of international relations, a protectorate has frequently been established by a unilateral act. For example, in 1914, Great Britain, by means of a unilateral declaration, established a protectorate over Egypt, which it had in fact occupied since 1882. In 1939, Hitlerite Germany established a protectorate over Bohemia and Moravia, which actually became victims of fascist aggression.

A protectorate represents a violation of the generally recognized principles of modern international law and, above all, of the principle of national self-determination as set forth in the UN Charter. The preservation of a protectorate regime or attempts to revive it also contradict a declaration published in 1960 concerning the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples.

As a historical vestige in Europe, Italy has retained a protectorate over San Marino since 1862, France over Monaco since 1861, and Switzerland over Liechtenstein since 1924.


Protectorate

 

the military dictatorship that ruled England from 1653 to 1659.

The protectorate was established on Dec. 16, 1653, at which time absolute power was transferred to O. Cromwell as lord protector. The protectorate was called upon to protect the new nobility and bourgeoisie against both royalist restoration attempts and the revolutionary initiatives of the popular masses. After Cromwell’s death, his eldest son, Richard, renounced the title of lord protector in May 1659, and power passed into the hands of a council of officers (called the Second English Republic). In 1660 the monarchy under the Stuarts was restored.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

protectorate

1. 
a. a territory largely controlled by but not annexed to a stronger state
b. the relation of a protecting state to its protected territory
2. the office or period of office of a protector
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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