amino sugar

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Amino sugar

A sugar in which one or more nonglycosidic hydroxyl groups is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group. The most abundant example is d -glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy- d -glucose) [see illustration].

Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)enlarge picture
Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)

A linear polymer of N-acetyl- d -glucosamine is widely distributed as chitin, the exoskeletal material of arthropods. The glycoproteins of higher animals, which are components of the proteoglycans of cartilage and skin, consist of polysaccharides that are generally sulfated and have N-acetylated glucosamine or galactosamine alternating with a uronic acid.

Amino sugars are important constituents of glycoproteins and oligosaccharides involved in biological recognition. Amino sugars of the greatest structural diversity are found in microorganisms as constituents of cell walls, in antigenic carbohydrates produced at the cell surface, and as antibiotic substances secreted from the cell. Streptomycin is the first demonstrated example of numerous amino-sugar-containing antibiotics produced notably by Actinomycetes (bacteria). See Chitin, Glycoprotein, Oligosaccharide, Polysaccharide

amino sugar

[ə¦mē·nō ¦shu̇g·ər]
A monosaccharide in which a non-glycosidic hydroxyl group is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group; an example isD-glucosamine.
References in periodicals archive ?
2001) employing the direct alkalization of soil rather than using the soil hydrolysate for amino sugar acid determination.
Average values were calculated for amino sugar nitrogen in soil beneath and beyond plant canopies for each species at each location.
Sand dunes: At Ridges Sanctuary, average amino sugar N concentration of soil beneath speckled alder was greater than both the adjacent and Canada buffaloberry soil averages for amino sugar N concentrations (Table 2).
Black soil prairie: Average soil amino sugar N concentration beneath leguminous leadplant shrubs at Prospect Cemetery was greater than in adjacent soils 2 m distant from its canopies as well as the New Jersey tea soil average.
Soils under speckled alder at the northernmost study locations of Ridges Sanctuary and Whitefish Dunes State Park, Wisconsin exhibited the greatest increase in amino sugar N over adjacent background soils compared with all other N-fixing plants in this study.
At this location, New Jersey tea shrubs were small (< 1m height) and did not accrete greater concentrations of soil amino sugar N than adjacent soils not influenced by N-fixing plants (Table 2).
Means of concentrations of VSC-lignin, carbohydrates, amino sugars, organic C, and N of the whole data set were compared by horizons among the 4 experimental sites using 1-way analyses of variance (ANOVA), followed by a post-hoc separation (significant at P = 0.
05) total concentrations of amino sugars were found in the A horizon of the reforestation than the primary and secondary forest and the cabbage cultivation (Fig.
Therefore, microbial compounds such as amino sugars once produced may accumulate through stabilisation by clay particles in soil.
Interpretation of the amino sugar ratios is difficult since the turnover times of the amino sugars may differ.
The patterns of amino sugars were considerably influenced by vegetation and land use.
The chemical transformation of C structures during the decomposition of organic matter was examined by comparing wet chemical analyses of lignin, amino sugars, and neutral sugars of bulk soils and alkaline-extractable organic matter with the liquid-state [sup.