amino sugar

(redirected from Amino sugars)
Also found in: Medical.

Amino sugar

A sugar in which one or more nonglycosidic hydroxyl groups is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group. The most abundant example is d -glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy- d -glucose) [see illustration].

Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)enlarge picture
Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)

A linear polymer of N-acetyl- d -glucosamine is widely distributed as chitin, the exoskeletal material of arthropods. The glycoproteins of higher animals, which are components of the proteoglycans of cartilage and skin, consist of polysaccharides that are generally sulfated and have N-acetylated glucosamine or galactosamine alternating with a uronic acid.

Amino sugars are important constituents of glycoproteins and oligosaccharides involved in biological recognition. Amino sugars of the greatest structural diversity are found in microorganisms as constituents of cell walls, in antigenic carbohydrates produced at the cell surface, and as antibiotic substances secreted from the cell. Streptomycin is the first demonstrated example of numerous amino-sugar-containing antibiotics produced notably by Actinomycetes (bacteria). See Chitin, Glycoprotein, Oligosaccharide, Polysaccharide

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

amino sugar

[ə¦mē·nō ¦shu̇g·ər]
A monosaccharide in which a non-glycosidic hydroxyl group is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group; an example isD-glucosamine.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Amino sugar N is strongly associated with microbial activity, commonly limited by high carbon to nitrogen ratios in soils.
We hypothesized that amino sugar N concentrations in soils would be higher under N-fixing plants than in adjacent soils away from the leaf canopies of N-fixing plants.
(2001) employing the direct alkalization of soil rather than using the soil hydrolysate for amino sugar acid determination.
Average values were calculated for amino sugar nitrogen in soil beneath and beyond plant canopies for each species at each location.
Amino sugars were also found to decrease downward in the profiles [133].
A high level of water (in Bg horizon) negatively affects the proportion of amino sugars within the total organic carbon.
Zech, "Land-use effects on amino sugars in particle size fractions of an Argiudoll," Applied Soil Ecology, vol.
Alef, "Amino sugars and muramic acid--biomarkers for soil microbial community structure analysis," Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.
When the undissolved material in the protein assay, the error in the protein assay due to carbohydrates, and the undetected amino sugars are accounted for, it is likely that protein and carbohydrate each make up 20%-25% of the dried adhesive mucus, with the other 50%-60% being inorganic residue.
The objectives of our study were (i) to examine the composition and distribution of lignin, amino sugars, and carbohydrates as revealed by alkaline CuO oxidation and hydrochloric acid and trifluoroacetic acid hydrolyses, respectively; and (ii) to evaluate the transformation of chemical structures of carbon during the decomposition of SOM under tropical conditions along a decomposition gradient within a given site (depth profiles) and between sites (different management systems).
Means of concentrations of VSC-lignin, carbohydrates, amino sugars, organic C, and N of the whole data set were compared by horizons among the 4 experimental sites using 1-way analyses of variance (ANOVA), followed by a post-hoc separation (significant at P = 0.05) of means done by the univariate l.s.d, test.
Significantly higher (P < 0.05) total concentrations of amino sugars were found in the A horizon of the reforestation than the primary and secondary forest and the cabbage cultivation (Fig.