Ammonium peroxydisulfate, graphite powder (99.99%) with the particle size of 45 [micro]m, and orthogonal phase [beta]-PbO were all obtained from Sigma-Aldrich and used as received.
Subsequently, 120 mL ammonium peroxydisulfate solution (0.5 M) was mixed with the solution of [beta]-PbO and the mixture was treated with ultrasound for 1 h.
The oxidant, ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) (analytical grade, Merck) was used without purification.
To start the polymerization, an equimolar amount of oxidant, aqueous ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) was added to this system drop wise for 30 min and the reaction was continued for 6 h with constant stirring.
Aniline, sulfuric acid and ammonium peroxydisulfate were purchased from Lach-Ner, Czech Republic, and used as received.
PANI/MMT powder has been prepared using simple one-step process by the oxidative polymerization of anilinium sulfate with ammonium peroxydisulfate in aqueous suspension of MMT at room temperature.
Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical polymerization of aniline hydrochloride using ammonium peroxydisulfate
as the oxidizing agent.
, 1 g of ammonium peroxydisulfate
(APODS) in powder form is added every 10 min during etching in order to eliminate the formation of hillocks.
The most frequently used process is based on ammonium peroxydisulfate in an acid environment (HCl) [1, 9, 12-15].
For aniline and 3-ABA polycondensation, a solution of ammonium peroxydisulfate (Aldrich) 0.1M and HCl (Merck) 0.1M was used.
The dispersion was cooled ([sim]0[degrees]C), and a solution of ammonium peroxydisulfate (15 g dissolved in 50 g water) was added dropwise.
Aniline and DBSA at a stoichiometric ratio react to form a fine dispersion of solid needle-like anilinium-DBSA complex, which upon the addition of an oxidizer (ammonium peroxydisulfate) polymerizes to form a PANI-DBSA stable dispersion in an aqueous medium.