Amoralism


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Amoralism

 

the principle of practical or ideological orientation embracing the negation of moral bases and socially accepted norms of behavior in society; a nihilistic attitude toward all moral norms and principles.

In practice, amoralism either is connected with the moral underdevelopment of an individual or arises as the result of social contradictions leading to the degradation of entire strata of society and to the spiritual disintegration of personality. In theory, amoralism usually substitutes utilitarian, pragmatic, opportunistically political, aesthetic, or individualistic considerations of freedom, self-assertiveness, pleasure-seeking, personal advantage, and so forth, for moral criteria.

As a conscious moral stance, amoralism arises with the disintegration of primitive tribal relationships, the separation of morality from automatic customs and traditional norms of behavior, and the beginning of individual reflection on the established way of life. In ancient society when the breakup of traditional kinship foundations was sharply accelerated and the collisions between different customs and group norms became more frequent, amoralism was expressed in the acknowledgment of the complete relativity, conditionality, and pragmatism of every principle and moral norm and in a negative attitude toward the values of the society’s culture—for example, among the cynics and some sophists. With the further development of class antagonistic societies, amoralism becomes a widespread phenomenon because the official morality is often accompanied in fact by amoralism, and the opposition to this morality sometimes turns into a rejection of any morality whatsoever. During the Renaissance the amoralism of some ideologists of the young bourgeoisie and the feudal church (Machiavelli, the Jesuit Loyola, Liguori, Busembaum) meant that morality had to be completely subordinated to political aims for the sake of which any methods were justifiable (“the end justifies the means”). During the mid-19th century under the spiritual crisis of bourgeois culture F. Nietzsche developed so-called aesthetic immoralism; he declared the spontaneous life force to be the highest value not liable to the judgment of the “slave morality of the crowd,” which tried to level the personality and oppose the assertion of outstanding individuality.

In its most cynical and misanthropic form, amoralism appeared in the ideology and practice of fascism—for instance, the cult of the Führer, which freed his subjects from the “chimera of conscience.” In essence, any attempt to do away with the principles of morality common to all mankind—to declare that conscience, love for mankind, and respect for the individual are superstition—leads to amoralism.

In an antagonistic society the exploiting classes are not interested in observing moral principles, even when they are proclaimed by the official ideology, if these principles do not correspond to the narrow mercenary goals of class rule.

O. G. DROBNITSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
There are a number of replies to both amoralism and the moral universalist.
(6) Perhaps the most famous (and influential) of the early critics of political economy and its supposed amoralism is Thomas Carlyle.
His old-fashioned pragmatism, his nineteenth-century radical honesty and frankness, his respect for such excellent bourgeois mottoes as "Fair Play" and "Don't kick a man when he's down," which have been too much vitiated by the sneers of Marxist amoralism, his consideration for the freedom of speech and writing, are all essentially liberal virtues.
But surely Carnap's amoralism cannot be the right option.
"Wilde's Aestheticism never encourages immorality or amoralism although many of his fellow Victorians were most willing to misinterpret it;" says the author, "his stress on form never means his rejection of content, for, in his concept, form and content must be one" (47).
Scilly is, in this respect, also a forebear of Armand de Querne in Bourget's intervening novel, Un Crime d'amour, (18) if not of the doctrinal amoralism of the Adrien Sixte of the first chapter of the novel of 1889.
The confrontational subculture diverges into three overlapping norms: amoralism; an emphasis on reputation; and a culture of honour.
Does he return the wiser for this dark knowledge of his own evil potential -- of the hair's breadth separating rugged individualism from the Superman's amoralism? Has the revelation, instead, forever bemused that spiritual vigor which once made him a Solzhenitsyn-like champion?
unbelief, amoralism, monism, historical untruth, anarchy, communism, and
Wright also includes a character much like Svidrigailov in Hilton, whose function is similarly to threaten the protagonist with his knowledge of the murders and whose cold-blooded amoralism suggests the protagonist's duality and participation in evil.
She cites comparisons of "familial amoralism" in Italy, "national amoralism" in Japan, and "ethical imperialism" in the USA.
Their imaginations have been captured instead by his apparent utilitarianism and general amoralism. Genuine moral obligation, Thomas Nagel has argued, "plays no part in Leviathan at all"; what Hobbes called moral obligation, he goes on to say, "is based exclusively on considerations of rational self-interest" (Nagel 1959, 69).