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Amphipolis(ămfĭ`pəlĭs), ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 B.C.) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 B.C. Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and BrasidasBrasidas
, d. 422 B.C., Spartan general in the Peloponnesian War. In 424 B.C. he saved Mégara from Athenian attack, and then conducted an able campaign in Thrace, capturing Amphipolis and other cities and greatly weakening the Athenian cause through his military successes
..... Click the link for more information. and CleonCleon
, d. 422 B.C., Athenian political leader. The son of a tanner, he had little education; nevertheless, he was a gifted speaker. He began his political career with a series of relentless attacks on Pericles. He was antagonistic to Sparta and successfully opposed (425 B.C.
..... Click the link for more information. were both killed in a battle there in 422 B.C. After it was returned to Athens in 421 B.C., it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 B.C.) by Philip IIPhilip II,
382–336 B.C., king of Macedon (359–336 B.C.), son of Amyntas II. While a hostage in Thebes (367–364), he gained much knowledge of Greece and its people.
..... Click the link for more information. of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 B.C. it became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Archaeological excavations have uncovered a number of remains including (beginning in 2012) the largest burial site ever unearthed in Greece. Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípoli.