Amur Basin River Ports
Amur Basin River Ports
the principal water transport centers for freight and passengers on the Amur River and the tributaries connecting the industrial centers of the Amur region with points of the basin near the river, shore regions at the Tatar Straits, the island of Sakhalin, and Kamchatka.
The Amur basin river ports originated and grew as the economy of the Amur region, of the settled points along the river, and of the river fleet of the Amur basin developed. Ships capable of both river and ocean travel enable direct river-ocean transport, connecting the main ports with the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and Japanese ports.
The main ports, from the mouth to the upper reaches of the Amur, are Nikolaevsk-na-Amure (since 1858), Komsomol’sk-na-Amure (since 1932), Khabarovsk (since 1872), and Svobodnyi (since 1905). The regions farther up the river receive oil and oil products, sawtimber, cement, metal, fish, and other products, while wood on rafts, coal, grain freight, vegetables, and other products travel down the river.
Nikolaevsk-na-Amure This port is located on the left bank of the Amur, 80 km from its discharge into the Amur estuary. The nearest railroad station is Komsomol’sk-na-Amure, 621 km up the Amur. The port, equipped with modern machinery, is an important transshipping point connected with the regions of the lower and middle Amur, the Okhotsk coast, Kamchatka, and Sakhalin. It accommodates both ocean and river ships for the transfer of cargoes. It receives coal, food and industrial products, equipment, and construction materials for use in the city. Oil, oil products, cement, and metals are unloaded at industrial piers. Fish is shipped out. There are passenger stations and river terminals. With the development of direct river-ocean transport, the significance of the port as a transshipping point is declining.
Komsomorsk-na-Amure Second in freight turnover on the Amur is Komsomol’sk-na-Amure, located on the left bank, 569 km from the mouth of the river, and connected with the Volochaevka-Komsomol’sk-Sovetskaia Gavan’ railroad line. Its docks are located in channels. The port receives coal, wood, food and industrial products, and construction materials; and freight processing is integrated and mechanized. There are passenger stations. A general plan for the reconstruction of Komsomol’sk-na-Amure foresees the transfer of the existing freight area of the port from the central part of the city and the construction of a new mechanized port. Construction of a river terminal and passenger stations is proceeding in the center of the city. At the industrial docks, coal, oil, scrap metal, wood, and fish are unloaded, and oil products are shipped out.
Khabarovsk Khabarovsk is the largest shipping port of the Amur and is located about midway up the river, 930 km from the mouth. The port links the city of Khabarovsk with Amur Oblast, Primor’e Krai, and the regions of the lower Amur on the Amur, Ussuri, and Sungari rivers. A railroad branch line connects the port with the main line of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. The port has three freight regions located on both banks of the Amur where grain freight, fish, and mining and construction materials are received and where coal, cement, metals and metal products, food and industrial products, grain freight, and other products are shipped out. The development of direct river-ocean transfer has significantly increased the port’s transport ties with the Okhotsk coast. In the center of the city are passenger stations which have recently been marked for reconstruction. At the industrial docks fish and oil are unloaded, and oil products are shipped out.
Svobodnyi Svobodnyi is located on the right bank of the Zeia River 190 km from its mouth. It is connected by a branch line with the main line of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. The basic freight received includes wood, food and industrial products, and mining and construction materials. It has a passenger station and a river terminal. The industrial docks load and unload oil products, grain, wood, and fire-resistant clay.
B. F. BEREZIN