Marianne Novy remarks that in The Second Part of Henry the Fourth (1598) the future Henry the Fifth "makes a point of reassuring his brothers that he will not kill them, as Amurath
, the Turkish Sultan, killed his.
Harbage's letter invites the exploration of plays preserved in manuscript but little read; in addition to Jugurth, he cites Amurath
, The Fatal Marriage, and The Governor.
The key event with which Hunyadi is associated in Foxe and other sixteenth-century sources is the Battle of Varna (10 November 1444), at which he assisted Vladislaus, king of Poland and Hungary, against Sultan Murad II ('Amurath
those three dayes cruell fight Huniades maintaind gainst mighty Amurath
The second: in Cossoas fatall plaines.
Elizabethan playwrights incorporated such Turkish figures in their works as the Turkish sultans--Bajazeth I (1389-1403), Soliman I (1520-1566), Selim II (1566-1574), Amurath
III (1574-1595), and Turkish Muhammad II (1451-1481).
(9.) Most commentary focuses on particular examples, usually the comparison to Alexander, whether understood primarily as serious (e.g., Richard Hillman, "'Not Amurath
Succeeds': Striking Crowns into the Hazard and Playing Doubles in Shakespeare's Henriad," in Intertextuality and Bomance in Renaissance Drama: The Staging of Nostalgia [New York: St.
Pseudo-histories of Ottoman rulers like Amurath
, Soleman, Baiazet and Selimus were dramatized on stage to entertain and familiarize the audience with the regimes in the East, even though they were perceived as enemies by the English public due to the legacy of the medieval crusade propaganda.
Hence, the professional and strictly organized Ottoman armies always caused awe and admiration in Europe, although Shakespeare adopts a most opposite approach while Othello asks whether they are turned Turks at the sign of lack of discipline among his men or when Henry IV states: "[t]his is the English, not the Turkish court; Not Amurath
succeeds" (Henry IV, Part II, 5.
succeeds, But Harry, Harry ...
His pairing of The Tragedy of Othello with the well-known history of Amurath
(Mehmet II, 1444-46, 1451-81) and Irene, the beloved Greek concubine the sultan purportedly sacrificed to prove his mastery over his passion, convincingly establishes Othello's internalization, not only of the negative connotations associated with blackness in early modern English culture (though current scholarship alerts us to contemporaneous positive connotations of blackness), but more so to the ongoing debate over the degree to which Othello has "turned Turk." By the play's catastrophe, Vitkus shows, Othello is damned by all the shades of conversion current in early modern England.
See Bell, Amurath
(London: Macmillan, 1924).
Gertrude Bell, The Desert and the Sown (Heinemann, 1907, Beacon Press, 1987); Amurath
(Heinemann, 1911); Gertrude Bell and Sir William Ramsey, The Thousand and One Churches (Hodder and Stoughton, 1909); Janet Wallach, Desert Queen (Phoenix, 1999); Susan Goodman.