Born 1722; died 1757. One of the sovereign princes of the Oirat khanate. Active in the anti-Manchu liberation movement in Mongolia in 1755–58. He was a descendant of middle Oirat aristocracy.
After the death of Khan Galdan-Tseren (1727–45), Amursana attempted to seize his throne. Opposed by the other pretenders, he fled to Peking. The Manchu dynasty, interested in destroying the Dzhungar (Oirat) khanate—the last home of Mongolian independence—sent a vast army into Dzhungaria, occupying the country (1775). This was done under the guise of helping Amursana. Convinced that the Manchus had deceived him, Amursana joined the growing spontaneous anti-Manchu movement in Khalkha and Dzhungaria and for all intents and purposes became its leader in Dzhungaria, acting in consort with Chingunzhab, who headed the uprising in Khalkha. The three-year struggle ended in 1758 with the cruel suppression of the uprising by the Manchus. For over two centuries the Mongolian people were under the yoke of the Manchus. In 1757, Amursana fled to Russian territory, where he soon died of smallpox.