Pentane

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Pentane

 

an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon with the empirical formula C5H12. Pentane occurs in three isomeric forms: n-pentane, CH3(CH2)3CH3 (boiling point 36.07°C, melting point -129.72°C, density 0.6260 gm/cm3 at 20°C), of isopen-tane, (CH3)2CHCH2CH3 (boiling point 27.85°C, melting point -159.7°C, density 0.6197 gm/cm3 at 20°C, and neopentane, (CH3)4C (boiling point 9.50°C, melting point - 16.55”C, density 0.5910°C gm/cm3 at 20°C).

Pentanes are isolated from the condensates of natural gas, from petroleum, from the light fractions of shale oil, and from hydrocarbons that are synthesized from synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Heating in the presence of HF, AlCl3, or an aluminum-platinum catalyst converts n-pentane into isopentane, the raw material from which isoprene is obtained. Pentanes are constituents of motor fuels and the starting materials in many petrochemical processes and basic organic synthesis.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.