amyloid

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Related to Amyloids: amyloidosis

amyloid

[′am·ə‚lȯid]
(pathology)
An abnormal protein deposited in tissues, formed from the infiltration of an unknown substance, probably a carbohydrate.
References in periodicals archive ?
One problem is that the strands of amyloids, known as fibrils, cannot be grown as crystals, which is the usual method of performing atomic resolution structural studies using X-rays.
Depositing amyloid in brain tissue is the first known preclinical stage of Alzheimer's and happens well before any obvious symptoms of dementia begin.
Since amyloid deposits are found in some type II diabetics but not others, its role in type II diabetes was initially ignored.
Four of the seven peptides formed amyloids which had the ability to catalyse the hydrolysis of organic molecules called esters - a reaction that some enzymes catalyse too.
"Until now, it has been very difficult to pick out these amyloid clusters from the individual amyloid proteins which are present in healthy people.
In heart muscle, clusters are formed of desmin amyloid proteins.
(1,2) In 1875, Burow was the first to describe amyloid deposits in the larynx.
Hyaline lesions in the pancreas were first described more than 110 years ago by Opie [1] and were later identified as amyloid. The deposits were originally assumed to be composed of insulin, fragments of insulin, or proinsulin, but 85 years after Opie's initial observation two groups independently identified the major protein component of islet amyloid as a 37-residue polypeptide neuropancreatic hormone, now known as islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin [2, 3] (Figure 1).
Some researchers who predicted 5 years ago that an antiamyloid disease-modifying therapy was imminent are now reevaluating that optimism--including the geneticist who first suggested the pathologic link between amyloid plaque deposition and Alzheimer's disease.
"I think at this point, the research community is so totally invested in amyloid that we need to either get something else that works or have an honest, sober, the-party's-over discussion of why amyloid-targeted therapies are failing--and get it off the table."
Some researchers who predicted 5 years ago that an anti-amyloid disease-modifying therapy was imminent are now re-evaluating that optimism--including the geneticist who first suggested the pathologic link between amyloid plaque deposition and Alzheimer's disease.