High-resolution anoscopy or expectant management for anal intraepithelial neoplasia
for the prevention of anal cancer: is there really a difference?
HPV vaccine against anal HPV infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia
. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365(17), 1576-1585.
The role of routine anal Pap smear screening is controversial in part because a clear link between anal intraepithelial neoplasia
(AIN) and anal cancer has long been assumed, but never demonstrated in prospective trials.
Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia
. Dis Colon Rectum.
"We would expect the qHPV vaccine to protect against anal intraepithelial neoplasia
[including anal condyloma] in the female and heterosexual male populations to a degree similar to that among men who have sex with men."
(10) demonstrated that considering histology as the gold-standard anal cytology had a sensitivity of 61% and 60% specificity for detecting anal intraepithelial neoplasia
(AIN) of any degree.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause anal as well as genital warts, and some strains, especially HPV 16 and 18, can cause anal cancer and its precursor, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia
. This retrospective study looked for evidence of hidden anal cancer or pre-cancerous cell changes in anal warts which were surgically removed from 320 men who have sex with men, who were treated between 2002 and 2007 for anal warts.
(1) Older age, receptive anal intercourse, and infection with anal human papillomavirus (HPV) raised the risk of low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia
(AIN), the less threatening type of abnormal anal cell growth studied.
Data are limited on the natural history of anal intraepithelial neoplasia
, however, and the CDC declined to recommend screening until more information becomes available.
* The quadrivalent HPV vaccine lowers rates of external genital lesions and anal intraepithelial neoplasia
(AIN), an anal cancer precursor, in MSM.