Anand, Viswanathan

Anand, Viswanathan,

1969–, Indian chess player. India's youngest national champion at the age of 16, he won the world junior championship and earned the title of grandmaster in 1987. Anand achieved international chess fame in 1991 when he won a tournament that included both the then-world champion Garry KasparovKasparov, Garry
, 1963–, Armenian chess player, b. Azerbaijan (then in the USSR) as Garik Kimovich Wainshtein. He became the world junior champion at the age of 16 and was International Chess Federation (FIDE) champion from 1985 to 1993. His first title match (Sept.
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 and the former title holder Anatoly KarpovKarpov, Anatoly
, 1951–, Russian chess master. In 1970 he became the world's youngest international grand master. Karpov won (1975) the world championship by default when Bobby Fischer, the titleholder, refused to agree to terms for a match.
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. After narrowly losing (1998) an International Chess Federation (FIDE) championship match to Karpov, Anand won the championship in a 2000 tournament in Tehran. However, the title of world champion was disputed by Vladimir KramnikKramnik, Vladimir,
1975–, Russian chess player, b. Tuapse. Kramnik started to play chess at the age of four, and at eleven began studying with both Mikhail Botvinnik and Garry Kasparov.
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, and Anand lost the FIDE championship two years later. In 2007 Anand became the undisputed unified world champion after winning a Mexico City tournament that included Kramnik and several other top-rated players. He successfully defended his title against Kramnik in 2008, Veselin TopalovTopalov, Veselin,
1975–, Bulgarian chess player. Topalov won the under-14 world championship in 1989 and placed second in the under-16 the following year, becoming a grandmaster in 1992 and a potential challenger for the world championship by 1996.
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 in 2010, and Boris Gelfand in 2012, but lost the title to Magnus CarlsenCarlsen, Magnus
(Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen), 1990–, Norwegian chess player. He became a grandmaster in 2004 at age 13, becoming the youngest player to achieve this honor, and in 2006 he won his first Norwegian championship.
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 in 2013. Anand was the first Indian and first Asian to hold the world title.
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