The book, further, introduces the ideas of anubhavas, and vibhavas illustrating the theory of rasa discussing the opinions and commentaries of later Indian poeticians starting from Anandavardhana
This includes Anandavardhana
's famous Dhvanyaloka (ninth cent.), which analyzed literary emotions by trying to explain, in Pollock's words, how "an emotion can come to inhabit the literary work" (Pollock 2010: 145).
(Source: The Dhvanyaloka of Anandavardhana
with the Locana of Abhinavagupta , Harvard University Press, 1990)
Lawrence focuses particularly on Abhinava's reformulations of Anandavardhana
's theory of the suggestion (dhvani) of aesthetic sentiments (rasa) by the formal structures of literature, and Bhatta Nayaka's conception of aesthetic sentiments as universalizations (sadharamkarana) of ordinary human emotions.
This position remains central to the idea of Dhvani and it is remarkable on the part of Anandavardhana
(6th Cent A.) to have developed such a thesis that takes into consideration the appropriate transformation, proportional signification, simultaneous cognition, modelised applicability and finally positional changes of each of the categories, constructs, and primary as well as secondary models of an artistic situation.
Take for example the notion of `suggested sense' (dhvani), which is basic to Sanskrit poetics from Anandavardhana
More importantly, they developed a sophisticated theory of literary semantics, based on the notion of dbvani or suggestion, and a powerful, explanatory theory of aesthetic response, based on the notion of rasa, usually translated as "sentiment." The theories of dbvani and rasa reached their culmination when they were synthesized into a unified theory by the Kashmiri philosophers Anandavardhana
and Abhinavagupta in the 9th and 10th centuries.
He does help us tremendously, however, by discussing the matter in terms of presuppositions rather of schools (though the mimamsa specifically, being a text-oriented tradition, does get its share) or of individuals (though Abhinavagupta and Anandavardhana
, the author of the Dhvanyaloka, who has become quite popular of late, are also used as points of departure for the arguments).
(As some of what people consider realistic will vary across cultures, this is another indexical law.) Thus, for example, the ninth-century Indian theorist, Anandavardhana
, wrote that the beauty of a work is harmed when 'in a passage dealing with a king who is a mere human ...
Writing in Kashmir in the last half of the 9th century A.D., Anandavardhana
had every advantage a scholar could desire: a royal patron, learned colleagues, brilliant students, honor for knowledge, talent, and sanctity, and a poetic tradition enriched over two thousand years.
(Harivijaya, v), this Maharastri kavya rendering of the theft of the Parijata tree was so popular that it became a regular point of reference for such theorists as Anandavardhana
, Abhinavagupta, and, especially, Bhoja in his Srngaraprakasa and Sarasvatikanthabharana (Harivijaya, 1-7).