An advantage of the XRD method was shown in distinguishing magnetite--hematite and in situations where microcrystalline Ti oxide impurities (rutile and anatase
) occurred in hematite or pseudorutile grains.
For the commercial oxide Ti[O.sub.2] P25, a mixture of anatase
and rutile with about 70% anatase
, the band gap energy ([E.sub.g]) reported in the literature is around 3.2 eV [28, 29], an equally reported value for pure anatase
Figure 3d reveals the shift in the position of the anatase
(101) main peak as a function of the Zr concentration in the solution after annealing at 500 [degrees]C.
We saw no significant changes when using amorph Ti[O.sub.2], PEG-brookite, rutile, anatase
, and amorph BSA nanoparticles [Figure 3].
The XRD (Figure 3) indicates that the photocatalytic powders are mainly made of the anatase
crystalline phase in comparison to characteristic peaks reported in the standard (R) JCPDS-73-1764.
In this context, the present work aimed to create a more biocompatible surface through anatase
formation by pulsed current at different frequencies and room temperature for anodisation processes.
where [E.sub.molecule] is the energy of the individual gas molecule, [E.sub.sur] is the energy of the insolated anatase
Ti[O.sub.2] (101) surface, and [E.sub.sur+molecule] is the total energy of the anatase
Ti[O.sub.2] (101) surface model after gas molecule adsorption.
The average crystallite size for anatase
and rutile ([D.sub.anatase] and [D.sub.rutile], resp.), the anatase
content, [A.sub.p], estimated with the Spurr-Myers equation  from the main diffraction peaks, and the pH of the acidic solution (HN[O.sub.3] and HCl) are shown in Table 1.
As shown in Figure 1(a), all the diffraction peaks matched well with anatase
Ti[O.sub.2] (JCPDS number 021-1272), which confirms that the pyrolysis temperature is appropriate to gain high-purity anatase
It can be concluded that the anatase
in this sample has a high defect density.
The market in the anatase
segment is expected to witness high growth rate during the forecast period because of the increasing demand for the anatase
grade of titanium dioxide for paints and coatings applications for the construction industry.
To prepare the Ti[O.sub.2] mixed with activated carbon samples, it was used Ti[O.sub.2] anatase
phase with 99.5% purity (Aldrich), grain size 21 nm ~ and activated carbon powder (Aldrich).