Andalusia

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Andalusia

(ăndəlo͞o`zhə, –shə), Span. Andalucía (än'dälo͞othē`ä), autonomous community (2011 pop. 8,371,270), 33,821 sq mi (87,596 sq km), S Spain, on the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Atlantic Ocean. Spain's largest and most populous region, it covers most of S Spain, comprising the provinces of Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga, and Seville (Sevilla), all named for their chief cities. Andalusia is crossed in the north by the Sierra Morena and in the south by mountain ranges that rise in the snowcapped Sierra Nevada to the highest peak in mainland Spain, Mulhacén (11,417 ft/3,480 m); between the ranges lies the fertile basin of the Guadalquivir River.

Economy and People

Despite the natural wealth of the region, poverty is widespread; Andalusian farm laborers are among the poorest in Europe, and many unemployed Andalusians have migrated to more industrialized regions of Spain. With its subtropical climate, Andalusia has many affinities with Africa, which it faces. Barren lands contrast with richly fertile regions where cereals, grapes, olives, sugarcane, and citrus and other fruits are produced. Industries, based generally on local agricultural produce, include wine making, flour milling, and olive-oil extracting. Much farming has become mechanized. Cattle, bulls for the ring, and fine horses are bred. The rich mineral resources, exploited since Phoenician and Roman times, include copper, iron, zinc, and lead.

Moorish influence is still strong in the character, language, and customs of the people. One of Europe's most strikingly colorful regions, Andalusia, with its tradition of bull fights, flamencoflamenco,
Spanish music and dance typical of the Romani (Gypsy), or gitano. Flamenco dancing is characterized by colorful costumes, intense and erotic movements, stamping of the feet (zapateado), and clapping of the hands (palmada
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 music and dance, and Moorish architecture, provides the strongest external image of Spain, especially to North Americans. Increasing tourism has made the service industry the fastest growing economic sector.

History

In the 11th cent. B.C., the Phoenicians settled there and founded several coastal colonies, notably Gadir (now CádizCádiz
, city (1990 pop. 156,903), capital of Cádiz prov., SW Spain, in Andalusia, on the Bay of Cádiz. Picturesquely situated on a promontory (joined to the Isla de León, just off the mainland), it is today chiefly a port exporting wines and other
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 and, supposedly, the inland town of Tartessus, which became the capital of a flourishing kingdom (sometimes identified with the biblical TarshishTarshish
, in the Bible. 1 Eponym of a country distant from Palestine which cannot be accurately identified; Cyprus, Spain, and Tarsus (S Asia Minor) have been suggested.
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). Greeks and Carthaginians came in the 6th cent. B.C.; the Carthaginians were expelled (3d cent. B.C.) by the Romans, who included S Spain in the province of Baetica. The emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Theodosius were born in the region.

Visigoths ended Roman rule in the 5th cent. A.D., and in 711 the MoorsMoors,
nomadic people of the northern shores of Africa, originally the inhabitants of Mauretania. They were chiefly of Berber and Arab stock. In the 8th cent. the Moors were converted to Islam and became fanatic Muslims.
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, crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, established there the center of their western emirate (see CórdobaCórdoba
or Cordova
, city (1990 pop. 307,275), capital of Córdoba prov., S Spain, in Andalusia, on the Guadalquivir River. Modern industries in the city include brewing, distilling, textile manufacturing, metallurgy, and tourism.
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). Andalusia remained under Moorish rule until most of it was conquered in the 13th cent. by the kings of Castile; the Moorish kingdom of GranadaGranada,
city (1990 pop. 268,674), capital of Granada prov., S Spain, in Andalusia, at the confluence of the Darro and Genil rivers. Formerly (17th cent.) a silk center, Granada is now a trade and processing point for an agricultural area that is also rich in minerals.
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 survived; it, too, fell to the Catholic kings in 1492. The Moorish period was the golden age of Andalusia. Agriculture, mining, trade, and industries (textiles, pottery, and leather working) were fostered and brought tremendous prosperity; the Andalusian cities of Córdoba, SevilleSeville
, Span. Sevilla, city (1990 pop. 678,218), capital of Seville prov. and leading city of Andalusia, SW Spain, on the Guadalquivir River. Connected with the Atlantic by the river and by a canal accessible to oceangoing vessels, Seville is a major port as well as an
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, and Granada, embellished by the greatest Moorish monuments in Spain, were celebrated as centers of culture, science, and the arts.

From the 16th cent. Andalusia generally suffered as Spain declined, although the ports of Seville and Cádiz flourished as centers of trade with the New World. Gibraltar was ceded to Britain in 1713, and in 1833 Andalusia was divided into the present eight provinces. With Catalonia, Andalusia was a stronghold of anarchism during the Spanish republic (est. 1931); however, it fell early to the Insurgents in the Spanish civil warSpanish civil war,
1936–39, conflict in which the conservative and traditionalist forces in Spain rose against and finally overthrew the second Spanish republic. The Second Republic
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 of 1936–39. The region later saw recurrent demonstrations against the national government of Francisco Franco. In 1981 it became an autonomous community and in 1982 it elected its first parliament.


Andalusia

(ăndəlo͞o`shə, –zhə), city (1990 pop. 9,269), seat of Covington co., S Ala., in a farming and forestry area; inc. 1844. Its manufactures include processed peanuts and pecans, meat products, textiles, lumber, and plywood.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Andalusia

a region of S Spain, on the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, with the Sierra Morena in the north, the Sierra Nevada in the southeast, and the Guadalquivir River flowing over fertile lands between them; a centre of Moorish civilization; it became an autonomous region in 1981. Area: about 87 280 sq. km (33 700 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The decision from the Public Works Agency makes local residents dismayed by the destruction of the ruins, conservationists, and historians virtually powerless to stop the razing by the metro company.Even though the Andalusian Ministry of Culture designated the Moorish district Property of Cultural Interest, meaning certain areas of the historic Muslim quarter are "protected," the metro company has gone ahead with the development anyway.
Under the coordination of the 'Fundacion Descubre' Andalusian Foundation for the Dissemination of Knowledge and Innovation, representatives from the following bodies and organisations will take part in the event: Regional Ministry of Economy, Knowledge, Business and Universities; nine Andalusian universities (Almeria, Cadiz, Cordoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaen, Malaga, Pablo de Olavide and Sevilla); Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) centres, including La Casa de la Ciencia de Sevilla, Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA-CSIC), Zaidin Experimental Station (EEZ), Institute for Advanced Social Studies, School of Arabic Studies (EEA), 'Lopez-Neyra' Institute of Parasitology y Biomedicine, 'Progreso y Salud' Public Foundation and the IMGEMA-Royal Botanical Gardens of Cordoba.
The Andalusian model encouraged Muslims, Christians and Jews to live together in peaceful environment.
Dr al-Sulaiti said that Katara is always keen on presenting the different cultures from all around the world and this concert opens a window on the rich authentic Tunisian heritage where classical music is mixed with Andalusian style.
It is a privately-owned company, which draws on an exceptional understanding of the fundamental science of cell therapies developed by the Andalusian Health Authority (Servicio Andaluz de Salud) and Andalusian Initiative of Advanced Therapies.
Under his direction and guidance, the group, which is comprised of young French and Andalusian dance and music talents, made an indelible mark on the world stage over the past two decades by constantly breathing new life into this traditional Spanish art form, thereby realizing de la Carrasca's vision of integrating it with dramatic and classical plays to create a truly mesmerizing and ever-evolving visual marvel.
In a contribution to the growing scholarly interest in Andalusian music, Davila presents an edition and translation of one of the 11 great anthologies that comprise the Moroccan Andalusian music tradition.
The Ahmed bin Zayed Al Nahyan Mosque in Zakher is expected to be a major landmark of the city and has been constructed in both Moroccan and Andalusian styles.
As Corriente notes in his preface, one special interest of Andalusian Arabic is that it is the earliest corpus of non-Classical Arabic concentrated in one dialectal area.
In a seemingly symbolic nod to the rising eminence of Andalusian gastronomy, the gala event to announce the 2015 Michelin Guide for Spain was held in the Andalusian port city of Marbella this year.
The Damascene troupe Tahlila held a concert at the Damascus Opera House on Sunday evening, performing a variety of Andalusian and heritage pieces, in addition to sophist chants and performances of Mawlawiyya.
Horseplay is Andalusian's exclusive membership program.