part of the Uzbek SSR. Formed on Mar. 6, 1941. The area is 4,300 sq km. The population in 1970 was 1,060,000. The oblast includes eight raions, two cities, and six urban-type settlements. Its center is the city of Andizhan.
Natural features. Andizhan Oblast is situated in the eastern portion of the Fergana Valley. The western part of the oblast is an elevated plain (elevation 400–500 m); the eastern part (east of Andizhan) is occupied by foothills (adyry) of the Fergana and Alai ranges. The climate is sharply continental. Summers are hot; the mean July temperature is 27.3°C. Winters are comparatively cold; the mean January temperature is -3°C. The frostless period in Andizhan is 217 days. Annual precipitation is about 200 mm. The main river is the Kara-Dar’ia (one of the components of the Syr-Dar’ia). The waters of the Kara-Dar’ia and other rivers are used extensively for irrigation. Andizhan Oblast has sierozem, meadow, and meadow-swamp soils. Most of the land is tilled. There is wormwood and halophytic vegetation on untilled sections of the plain, ephemeral wormwood on the adyry, and pistachio and almond trees on the mountain slopes.
Population. Andizhan Oblast occupies less than 1 percent of the territory of the Uzbek SSR, but about 9 percent of its population lives there. The mean population density is 240.2 per sq km (nine times greater than that of the republic). Uzbeks make up 77 percent of the population; there are also Russians, Tatars, Tadzhiks, Uigurs, Koreans, and others. Twenty-three percent of the population is urban. Cities include Andizhan and Leninsk.
Economy. The foundation of the oblast’s economy is its highly developed intensive agriculture (cotton-growing is the most important branch) and its developed industry.
The oblast receives its electric power from the Shaarikhan hydroelectric system and also from the Kuvasai State Raion Power Plant (Fergana Oblast) and the Uch-Kurgan Hydroelectric Power Plant (Kirghizia). The output of electric power was more than 159 million kilowatt-hours (kW-hr) in 1967 (in 1940 it was 25.8 million kW-hr). The leading branches of the economy are those connected with mining, the servicing of cotton growing and irrigation, and the processing of raw cotton and other agricultural products. By 1967 gross industrial production had increased by a factor of more than three in comparison with 1940. Andizhan Oblast is the republic’s main region for oil drilling (the Andizhan, Palvantash, Southern Alamyshik, and Boston oil fields). Oil is transported by pipeline to plants in Fergana Oblast for refining. In 1967, 763,500 tons of oil were extracted (15,000 tons in 1940). By-products and natural gas are extracted (192 million cu m in 1967; virtually none in 1940); the Khodzhiabad deposits are large. There is a gas pipeline from Khodzhiabad via Andizhan to Leninsk which continues to cities of Fergana Oblast. Machine-building plants—producing diesels, pumping apparatus, scrapers, bulldozers, trench diggers, electrical equipment, and transformers—and chemical plants (a hydrolytic plant) are concentrated in Andizhan. Brick (134 million pieces in 1967), lime, ganch (a binding material used in plastering), slate, reinforced concrete components and structures, and other building materials are produced. In Andizhan there are cotton-ginning plants (for the manufacture of cotton thread), oil mills (cottonseed oil), and a cannery (vegetables, fruits, and grapes). Milling, meat-packing, dairy, wine-making, and other enterprises are in operation. There are clothing, shoe, and knitwear factories.
The total land resources of 425,700 hectares (ha), not counting land used outside the boundaries of Andizhan Oblast, include 230,200 ha of plowed land (1968), 12,200 ha of orchards and vineyards, and 33,500 ha of pasture; in addition, there are 17,600 ha in personal plots and over 130,000 ha in fallow land and land not used for agriculture.
Almost all sowing is done on irrigated land. The Great Fergana, Southern Fergana, Great Andizhan, and other mainline canals pass through the oblast. There is a substantial drainage and collection system. The Andizhan reservoir (capacity 1.75 billion cu m), which will improve the condition of irrigated land and make it possible to bring new land under cultivation, is under construction (1970). Cotton occupies about three-fourths of the sown area (11.1 percent of the sown area of the Uzbek SSR). The cotton crop has almost doubled in comparison with prerevolutionary times. In 1968, with a yield of up to 26.8 centners/ha, the oblast produced 481,100 tons of raw cotton (12 percent of the republic’s total). Vegetable and melon crops and potatoes (primarily around cities and industrial centers) are cultivated; cereal crops are insignificant. Alfalfa predominates among fodder crops. There are orchards and vineyards in all raions, especially Andizhan and Khodzhiabad.
Because of the inadequate fodder base, livestock-raising is comparatively undeveloped. In the summer, some of the cattle are driven into high mountain pastures of the neighboring raions of Kirghizia. The livestock population is as follows (early 1969): cattle—231,800 (including 98,700 cows); sheep and goats—277,200; and horses—8,600. Sericulture is the oldest branch of agriculture. Andizhan Oblast has over 15 percent of the silk cocoons of Uzbekistan.
Andizhan Oblast is crossed by railroad lines from Tashkent to Jalalabad via Kokand, Margilan, and Andizhan and from Kokand to Namangan and Andizhan. The Fergana ring highway passes through the oblast.
N. G. TSAPENKO
Cultural affairs and public health. In the 1968–69 school year, 255,100 students were enrolled in 572 general instruction schools of all types. There were 24,800 children in preschool institutions. There were 11 specialized secondary schools (8,000 students) and four institutes (medicine, pedagogy, and language pedagogy in Andizhan, cotton-growing in the kishlak—village—of Kuigan-Iar in Izbaskan-skii Raion) with 12,900 students. A puppet theater and the Akhunbabaev Uzbek Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy are active in Andizhan. There are 555 people’s libraries (over 3 million copies of books and periodicals), 367 club institutions, 356 film units, and the Andizhan Oblast Historical and Regional Studies Museum.
The oblast newspapers are Kommunist (since 1930), in Uzbek, and Andizhanskaia pravda (since 1941)—the organs of the Andizhan oblast and city committees of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan and of the oblast and city
Councils of Workers’ Deputies. Oblast radio and television have programming in Uzbek, Russian, and Tatar; radio and television transmissions from Moscow and Tashkent are also rebroadcast.
On Jan. 1, 1968, there were 1,316 doctors (that is, one for every 768 persons) and 8,750 hospital beds (or 87 per 10,000 population) in Andizhan Oblast.