André Masséna

(redirected from Andre, Duke de Rivoli, Prince D'essling Massena)
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Masséna, André

 

Born May 6, 1758, near Nice; died Apr. 4, 1817, in Paris. Marshal of France (1804); duke of Rivoli (1808); prince of Esslingen (1810). Son of a wine merchant.

Masséna entered the army in 1775 and served as a soldier; in 1789 he retired but entered the revolutionary army in 1791. In 1793 he was a brigadier general and took part in the siege of Toulon. In 1794 he became a division general. Massena operated successfully at the head of the vanguard of the army in Napoleon’s Italian campaign of 1796-97. In 1799 he commanded troops in Switzerland and defeated General A. M. Rimskii-Korsakov’s Russo-Austrian corps. In 1800, Massena commanded the troops besieged at Genoa. In the war between Austria and France in 1809 he commanded the left wing at Wagram. In 1810-11 he was commander of troops in Portugal but was removed for a series of defeats. In 1814 he went over to the side of the Bourbons and in 1815 was made a peer of France.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.